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Keratinocytes in culture represent cells which exhibit continued and controlled growth in the organism. We have investigated the synthesis of urokinase plasminogen activator mRNA in exponentially growing cultures of primary murine keratinocytes and the keratinocyte cell line BALB/MK. The tumor promotor 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and(More)
We have characterized a transcriptional enhancer of the human urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) gene in three transformed human cell lines: HeLa, HepG2 and HT1080. The enhancer is located approximately 2 kbp upstream of the mRNA cap site and is active in all three cell lines. By footprinting and gel retardation analysis we found that it contained(More)
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) have several roles that influence cancer progression and dissemination. However, low molecular weight metalloproteinase inhibitors (MPI) have not yet been tested in transgenic/spontaneous metastasis models. We have tested Galardin/GM6001, a potent MPI that reacts with most MMPs, in the MMTV-PymT transgenic breast cancer(More)
Analysis of extracellular matrix degradation systems has led to the insight that in cancer invasion there is often crucial interplay between cancer cells and several types of surrounding non-neoplastic stromal cells. Likewise, in normal tissue remodeling processes, the synthesis of proteolytic components is often distributed between several cell types, and(More)
Breakdown of the extracellular matrix is crucial for cancer invasion and metastasis. It is accomplished by the concerted action of several proteases, including the serine protease plasmin and a number of matrix metalloproteases. The activity of each of these proteases is regulated by an array of activators, inhibitors and cellular receptors. Thus, the(More)
We recently undertook expression profiling of all 19 human ADAMTS metalloproteinases (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) in malignant and non-neoplastic breast tissue and showed that 11 of the ADAMTS genes are dysregulated in breast carcinoma. We identified a subgroup of ADAMTSs, based on functional and amino acid sequence(More)
A prominent phenotype of plasmin deficiency in mice is reduced metastasis in the MMTV-PymT transgenic breast cancer model. Proteolytically active plasmin is generated from inactive plasminogen by one of 2 activators, uPA or tPA. We now find that uPA deficiency alone significantly reduces metastasis >7-fold in the MMTV-PymT model. We studied a cohort of 55(More)
Keratinocytes undergo a dramatic phenotypic conversion during reepithelialization of skin wounds to become hyperproliferative, migratory, and invasive. This transient healing response phenotypically resembles malignant transformation of keratinocytes during squamous cell carcinoma progression. Here we present the first analysis of global changes in(More)
Plasminogen (Plg) plays a central role in tissue remodeling during ontogeny, development, and in pathological tissue remodeling following physical injury, inflammation and cancer. Plg/plasmin is, however, not critical for these processes, as they all occur to a varying extent in its absence, suggesting that there is a functional redundancy with other(More)
The plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) blocks the activation of plasmin(ogen), an extracellular protease vital to cancer invasion. PAI-1 is like the corresponding plasminogen activator uPA (urokinase-type plasminogen activator) consistently expressed in human breast cancer. Paradoxically, high levels of PAI-1 as well as uPA are equally associated(More)