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Plants encode subunits for a fourth RNA polymerase (Pol IV) in addition to the well-known DNA-dependent RNA polymerases I, II, and III. By mutation of the two largest subunits (NRPD1a and NRPD2), we show that Pol IV silences certain transposons and repetitive DNA in a short interfering RNA pathway involving RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 2 and Dicer-like 3.(More)
We systematically generated large-scale data sets to improve genome annotation for the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a key model organism. These data sets include transcriptome profiling across a developmental time course, genome-wide identification of transcription factor-binding sites, and maps of chromatin organization. From this, we created more(More)
Chromatin immunoprecipitation identifies specific interactions between genomic DNA and proteins, advancing our understanding of gene-level and chromosome-level regulation. Based on chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments using validated antibodies, we define the genome-wide distributions of 19 histone modifications, one histone variant, and eight(More)
We developed a double staining technique for simultaneous demonstration of astrocytes and microglial cells in histological brain sections and cell cultures. The procedure included a histochemical stain specific for microglial cells and an immunocytochemical stain specific for astroglial cells, with postponement of the final visualization of the staining(More)
Transection of the entorhino-dentate perforant path is a well known model for lesion-induced axonal sprouting and glial reactions in the rat. In this study, we have characterized the microglial reaction in the dentate molecular layer of the SJL/J and C57Bl/6 mouse. The morphological transformation of the microglial cells and their densitometrically measured(More)
The reaction of microglial and a stroglial cells to anterograde axonal degeneration was studied in the fascia dentata of adult rats at various timepoints after removal of the entorhinal perforant path projection. Microglial cells were identified by histochemical staining for nucleoside diphosphatase (NDPase) at light and electron microscopical levels.(More)
The reactions of microglial and astroglial cells to anterograde axonal degeneration were studied in the fascia dentata of adult rats from 1 to 42 days after removal of the entorhinal perforant path projection. The observations focused on the kinetics of glial activation in terms of induction of immunomolecules on the glial cells and the possible correlation(More)
Insulin signaling has a profound effect on longevity and the oxidative stress resistance of animals. Inhibition of insulin signaling results in the activation of DAF-16/FOXO and SKN-1/Nrf transcription factors and increased animal fitness. By studying the biological functions of the endogenous RNA interference factor RDE-4 and conserved PHD zinc finger(More)
Glial reactivity is implicated in CNS repair and regenerative responses. Microglia, the cells responding earliest to axonal injury, produce tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), a cytokine with both cytopathic and neuroprotective effects. We have studied activation of hippocampal microglia to produce TNFalpha in response to transection of perforant path(More)
The regulation of oligodendrocyte gene expression and myelination in vivo in the normal and injured adult CNS is still poorly understood. We have analyzed the effects of axotomy-induced axonal sprouting and microglial activation, on oligodendrocyte myelin basic protein (MBP) gene expression from 2 to 35 days after transection of the entorhino-hippocampal(More)