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BACKGROUND The low specificity of ventilation-perfusion lung scanning complicates the management of patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. OBJECTIVE To determine the safety of a clinical model for patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. SETTING Five tertiary care hospitals. PATIENTS 1239 inpatients and(More)
We have previously demonstrated that a clinical model can be safely used in a management strategy in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). We sought to simplify the clinical model and determine a scoring system, that when combined with D-dimer results, would safely exclude PE without the need for other tests, in a large proportion of patients. We(More)
The principal goal of this study was to determine whether the results from a set of selected currently available alternative methods as used by cosmetics companies are valid for predicting the eye irritation potential of cosmetics formulations and ingredients and, as a consequence, could be valid replacements for the Draize eye irritation test. For the(More)
There are currently no in vitro methods suitable for the prospective identification of skin sensitizers (contact allergens). Knowledge relating chemical structure to toxicity can be programmed into expert systems. An historical database, containing results of 294 defined single substances tested in the guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) carried out(More)
The human 4 hour patch test provides an opportunity to identify substances with significant skin irritation potential without recourse to the use of animals. The protocol is designed to avoid the production of more than mild irritant reactions and meets the highest ethical standards. This paper provides the background to the development of the method and(More)
Many studies have been conducted in order to assess the validity of alternative methods as replacements forin vivo toxicity tests. The purpose of this review is to build on what has been learned in the course of this work by presenting a practical process that can be used to conduct future validation programmes. The important role of a clearly stated(More)
This paper represents a summary of presentations made during a round-table discussion at the ECVAM Opening Symposium. After introductory comments on the cosmetic industry's use of alternative methods in the safety assessment process, the use of alternative methods by L'Oréal and by the Japanese cosmetic industry is outlined, current validation studies in(More)
There are currently no in vitro methods for the identification of skin sensitizers (contact allergens). Knowledge relating chemical structure to toxicity can be programmed into expert systems. An historical database containing results of 294 defined single substances tested in the guinea pig maximization test to a single protocol has been used to derive a(More)
The effects of zinc pyrithione (ZnPTO) were studied in a series of in vitro tests to determine whether its mode of action is primarily cytostatic or cytotoxic. Sodium pyrithione (NaPTO) was also studied, to check that pyrithione was the active moiety, and the known cytostatic chemical hydroxyurea was included for comparison. ZnPTO had a reversible(More)