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We have previously demonstrated that a clinical model can be safely used in a management strategy in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). We sought to simplify the clinical model and determine a scoring system, that when combined with D-dimer results, would safely exclude PE without the need for other tests, in a large proportion of patients. We(More)
BACKGROUND The low specificity of ventilation-perfusion lung scanning complicates the management of patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. OBJECTIVE To determine the safety of a clinical model for patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. SETTING Five tertiary care hospitals. PATIENTS 1239 inpatients and(More)
The principal goal of this study was to determine whether the results from a set of selected currently available alternative methods as used by cosmetics companies are valid for predicting the eye irritation potential of cosmetics formulations and ingredients and, as a consequence, could be valid replacements for the Draize eye irritation test. For the(More)
There are currently no in vitro methods suitable for the prospective identification of skin sensitizers (contact allergens). Knowledge relating chemical structure to toxicity can be programmed into expert systems. An historical database, containing results of 294 defined single substances tested in the guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) carried out(More)
Many studies have been conducted in order to assess the validity of alternative methods as replacements forin vivo toxicity tests. The purpose of this review is to build on what has been learned in the course of this work by presenting a practical process that can be used to conduct future validation programmes. The important role of a clearly stated(More)
There are currently no in vitro methods for the identification of skin sensitizers (contact allergens). Knowledge relating chemical structure to toxicity can be programmed into expert systems. An historical database containing results of 294 defined single substances tested in the guinea pig maximization test to a single protocol has been used to derive a(More)
The brief of the Organotypic Models Working Group was to review data submitted to the Interagency Regulatory Alternatives Group on the use of isolated eyes and components of the eye used to predict eye irritation potential. Data submissions were received on four test systems: the isolated rabbit eye (one submission), the isolated chicken eye (one(More)
The effects of zinc pyrithione (ZnPTO) were studied in a series of in vitro tests to determine whether its mode of action is primarily cytostatic or cytotoxic. Sodium pyrithione (NaPTO) was also studied, to check that pyrithione was the active moiety, and the known cytostatic chemical hydroxyurea was included for comparison. ZnPTO had a reversible(More)
The human 4 hour patch test provides an opportunity to identify substances with significant skin irritation potential without recourse to the use of animals. The protocol is designed to avoid the production of more than mild irritant reactions and meets the highest ethical standards. This paper provides the background to the development of the method and(More)
The mode of action of inorganic fibers as carcinogens is unknown. There is conflicting evidence whether they act by inducing lesions in DNA, such as initiating carcinogens, or alternatively act as promoters of carcinogenesis. Recent evidence has suggested that promoters inhibit the process of cell-to-cell chemical communication known as metabolic(More)