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A 2.91-billion base pair (bp) consensus sequence of the euchromatic portion of the human genome was generated by the whole-genome shotgun sequencing method. The 14.8-billion bp DNA sequence was generated over 9 months from 27,271,853 high-quality sequence reads (5.11-fold coverage of the genome) from both ends of plasmid clones made from the DNA of five(More)
1) The article reviews the current state of understanding of diversity among El Niño / Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, which differ from event to event in their amplitude, spatial pattern, temporal evolution, dynamical mechanisms, and impacts. 2) ENSO diversity is apparent in historical climate records, paleo proxy records, and model simulations. There(More)
Anemia is a common manifestation of HIV infection, occurring in approximately 30% of patients with asymptomatic infection and in as many as 75% to 80% of those with AIDS. Anemia has been associated with decreased quality of life and decreased survival. We performed a cross-sectional study nested within a multicenter prospective cohort study to describe the(More)
DNA inoculation has the potential to produce antigens in a native as well as a host-"customized" form for presentation to the immune system. As such this technology may have relevance for vaccine/immune therapeutic strategies for a variety of infectious pathogens. In rodents in vivo inoculation of plasmid expression vectors encoding HIV-1 gene products(More)
Countries with high HIV prevalence face the challenge of achieving high coverage of antiretroviral drug regimens interventions including for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). In 2011, the World Health Organization and the Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development, Canada, launched a joint implementation research (IR)(More)
INTRODUCTION Against the background of Ghana's ART program which scaled up rapidly since inception in 2003, the study assessed outcomes of an early cohort of patients initiating ART. METHODS THE STUDY UTILIZED THE FOLLOWING METHODS: a cross-sectional study involving patient interviews using a structured questionnaire, a review of records and a(More)
[1] The magnitude of sea surface temperature variability in the NINO3.4 region of the equatorial Pacific on decadal and longer timescales is assessed in observational data, state-of-the-art (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5) climate model simulations, and a new ensemble of paleoclimate reconstructions. On decadal to multidecadal timescales,(More)
The cloud-level atmosphere of Venus takes little more than 4 days to complete one rotation, whereas the solid planet below has a 243-day period. Computer simulations of the circulation of the Venus middle atmosphere between 40 and 85 kilometers, as driven by solar radiation absorbed in the clouds, reproduce (i) the observed cloud-level rotation rate, (ii)(More)