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In order to achieve autonomous operation of a vehicle in urban situations with unpredictable traffic, several realtime systems must interoperate, including environment perception, localization, planning, and control. In addition, a robust vehicle platform with appropriate sensors, computational hardware, networking, and software infrastructure is essential.
This paper reports on AnnieWAY, an autonomous vehicle that is capable of driving through urban scenarios and that successfully entered the finals of the 2007 DARPA Urban Challenge competition. After describing the main challenges imposed and the major hardware components, we outline the underlying software structure and focus on selected algorithms.… (More)
This paper describes the hardware and software framework of AnnieWAY, an autonomous vehicle successfully competing at all qualification stages up to the finals of the <i>DARPA</i> <i>Urban</i> <i>Challenge</i> <i>2007</i> competition. Besides the hardware premises for by-wire steering, braking, throttle control and sensors, two frameworks for high-level… (More)
The shortest distance between the vehicle's position and the path is used as control error for path control of autonomous vehicles. In order to determine this distance, the projection point onto the path needs to be determined continuously. This requires fast algorithms with high numerical reliability. Two approaches for the projection have been developed… (More)
We propose a method for navigating a car-like vehicle within an unstructured environment. Path planning is posed as a graph search problem. The search graph is set up in a way that implies derivation of a feed forward term for a downstream closed loop controller. An informed search algorithm is used that is guided by a heuristic cost function that accounts… (More)
The urban challenge 2007 is a research program conducted in a competitive format to address the challenging aspects of letting vehicles accomplish missions in urban scenarios fully autonomously. AnnieWAY is one out of eleven autonomous vehicles that entered the finals. As it turned out, one of the major difficulties is the combination of different… (More)