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Botnets, i.e., networks of compromised machines under a common control infrastructure, are commonly controlled by an attacker with the help of a central server: all compromised machines connect to the central server and wait for commands. However, the first botnets that use peer-to-peer (P2P) networks for remote control of the compromised machines appeared(More)
Distributed hash tables (DHTs) have been actively studied in literature and many different proposals have been made on how to organize peers in a DHT. However, very few DHT shave been implemented in real systems and deployed on alarge scale. One exception is <scp>KAD</scp>, a DHT based on Kademlia, which is part of eDonkey2000, a peer-to-peer(More)
—Netflix is the leading provider of on-demand Internet video streaming in the US and Canada, accounting for 29.7% of the peak downstream traffic in US. Understanding the Netflix architecture and its performance can shed light on how to best optimize its design as well as on the design of similar on-demand streaming services. In this paper, we perform a(More)
Peer-to-peer systems have seen a tremendous growth in the last few years and peer-to-peer traffic makes a major fraction of the total traffic seen in the Internet. The dominating application for peer-to-peer is file sharing. Some of the most popular peer-to-peer systems for file sharing have been Napster, FastTrack, BitTorrent, and eDonkey, each one(More)
Distributed hash tables (DHTs) have been actively studied in literature and many different proposals have been made on how to organize peers in a DHT. However, very few DHTs have been implemented in real systems and deployed on a large scale. One exception is KAD, a DHT based on Kademlia, which is part of eDonkey, a peer-to-peer file sharing system with(More)
Network coordinates allow to estimate the latency among a large number of hosts in a scalable way. Recently, Azureus, a popular implementation of BitTorrent, has implemented network coordinates. We have developed a crawler that allows us to obtain from the network coordinates over one hundred thousand peers running Azureus and to measure the network and(More)
This paper presents a dynamic and distributed algorithm for the clustering of peers in a Networked Virtual Environment (NVE) based on a fully distributed peer-to-peer (P2P) network.The main idea is to classify connections in short intra-cluster connections and long inter-cluster connections. The insertion of new peers or the deletion of existing peers can(More)