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Powdery mildews are phytopathogens whose growth and reproduction are entirely dependent on living plant cells. The molecular basis of this life-style, obligate biotrophy, remains unknown. We present the genome analysis of barley powdery mildew, Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei (Blumeria), as well as a comparison with the analysis of two powdery mildews(More)
– Using the recently developed so-called White Bear version of Rosenfeld's Fundamental Measure Theory we calculate the depletion potentials between a hard-sphere colloidal particle in a solvent of small hard spheres and simple models of geometrically structured sub-strates: a right-angled wedge or edge. In the wedge geometry, there is a strong attraction(More)
We hypothesised that--due to bending and tension--there should exist a preferential direction of the collagen fibrils in the subchondral bone of the concave components of the hip and shoulder joint that results from bicentric or eccentric loading, but there should be no preferential direction in the convex joint partners. We therefore examined 25 human hip(More)
Recent Monte Carlo simulation studies of a Lennard-Jones fluid confined to a mesoscopic slit pore have reported evidence of "critical depletion" in the pore local number density near the liquid-vapor critical point. In this Brief Report we demonstrate that the observed depletion effect is in fact a simulation artifact arising from small systematic errors(More)
Thin films of monatomic fluid constrained between two plane-parallel structured solid walls have been modeled by Monte Carlo simulation under conditions (fixed temperature, chemical potential, and normal stress or load) prevailing in high-precision measurements of surface forces. Several states of the film, corresponding to different numbers of layers of(More)
Morphological adaptations to climbing (a scansorial mode of quadrupedal, arboreal locomotion practised on twigs and small branches) are identified by relating anatomical details of limb bones to a sample of 6,136 instantaneous observational recordings on the positional behavior and support uses of 20 different free-ranging, adult red howlers. Our findings(More)
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