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This study tested the hypothesis that mtDNA fragments carry immunostimulatory motifs that naturally induce immune activation by PDC. Genomic and mtDNA induced similar IFN-α production after transfection into PBMCs using the liposomal transfection reagent DOTAP. Shortening of mtDNA to CpG islands enhanced the immunostimulatory activity, based on the presence(More)
Abstract Human plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDC) are the major producers of type I interferons (IFN) after stimulation with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN). HIV-1-infected patients show a deficit in PDC numbers and function with progression of disease. CpG ODN appear to be attractive therapeutics to support the impaired innate immunity in HIV-1 infection.(More)
Chronic immune activation, triggered by plasmacytoid dendritic cell (PDC) interferon (IFN)-alpha production, plays an important role in HIV-1 pathogenesis. As the entry of HIV-1 seems to be important for the activation of PDC, we directly characterized the viral entry into these cells using immuno-electron microscopy, cellular fractionation, confocal(More)
Human plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDC) are crucial for innate and adaptive immune responses against viral infections, mainly through production of type I interferons. Evidence is accumulating that PDC surface receptors play an important role in this process. To investigate the PDC phenotype in more detail, a chip-based expression analysis of surface(More)
Although a signature of increased interferon (IFN-)alpha production is observed in HIV-1 infection, the response of circulating plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDC) to Toll-like receptor ligand stimulation is substantially impaired. This functional PDC deficit, which we specifically observed in HIV-1 infected individuals with less than 500 CD4+ T cells/µl, is(More)
Highly active antiretroviral therapy has dramatically improved the morbidity and mortality of HIV-1-infected individuals. A total of 25 licensed drugs provide the basis for an optimized virus-suppressive treatment of nearly each subject. The promises of immune reconstitution and normal life expectancy, however, fall short for a number of patients, either(More)
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