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BACKGROUND AND AIMS Russeting in apples (Malus × domestica Borkh.) and pears (Pyrus communis L.) is a disorder of the fruit skin that results from microscopic cracks in the cuticle and the subsequent formation of a periderm. To better understand russeting, rheological properties of cuticular membranes (CM) and periderm membranes (PM) were studied from the(More)
The exocarp, or skin, of fleshy fruit is a specialized tissue that protects the fruit, attracts seed dispersing fruit eaters, and has large economical relevance for fruit quality. Development of the exocarp involves regulated activities of many genes. This research analyzed global gene expression in the exocarp of developing sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.,(More)
The skin of developing soft and fleshy fruit is subjected to considerable growth stress, and failure of the skin is associated with impaired barrier properties in water transport and pathogen defence. The objectives were to establish a standardized, biaxial tensile test of the skin of soft and fleshy fruit and to use it to characterize and quantify(More)
The morphological outer side of the apple fruit cuticle is markedly more strained than the inner side. This strain is released upon wax extraction. This paper investigates the effect of ablating outer and inner surfaces of isolated cuticular membranes (CM) of mature apple (Malus × domestica) fruit using cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP) on the release(More)
Flow rates were quantified on detached pedicels and conductances calculated. Flow rates and conductances were independent of time and temperature, increased with the pressure applied and slightly decreased during development. Water uptake is thought to contribute to cracking of sweet cherry fruit. Water uptake/loss occurs not only through the fruit surface(More)
The continuous deposition of cutin and wax during leaf and fruit growth is crucial to alleviate elastic strain of the cuticle, minimize the risk of failure and maintain its barrier functions. The cuticular membrane (CM) is a lipoidal biopolymer that covers primary surfaces of terrestrial plants. CMs have barrier functions in water and solute transfer and(More)
Cell wall swelling, fracture mode (along the middle lamellae vs. across cell walls), stiffness, and pressure at fracture of the sweet cherry fruit skin are closely related. Skin cracking is a common phenomenon in many crops bearing fleshy fruit. The objectives were to investigate relationships between the mode of fracture, the extent of cell wall swelling,(More)
Flow in the phloem increased in developing sweet cherry, whereas xylem flow continuously decreased resulting in a fruit water potential that was independent from the tree at fruit maturity. Rain cracking of sweet cherry fruit is associated with water uptake through the skin, but probably also through the vasculature of the pedicel. The aim of this study was(More)
The cuticular membrane (CM) of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit is severely strained during development. Strain results from a cessation of CM deposition during early development and is possibly caused by a downregulation of genes involved in CM synthesis. The objectives of our study were to investigate the effects of ectopic expression of two sweet(More)
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