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In sensory hair cells of the inner ear, mechanical amplification of small stimuli requires fast adaptation, the rapid closing of mechanically activated transduction channels. In frog and mouse vestibular hair cells, we found that the rate of fast adaptation depends on both channel opening and stimulus size and that it is modeled well as a release of a(More)
After opening in response to mechanical stimuli, hair cell transduction channels adapt with fast and slow mechanisms that each depend on Ca(2+). We demonstrate here that transduction and adaptation require phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) for normal kinetics. PIP(2) has a striking distribution in hair cells, being excluded from the basal(More)
Ethanol (EtOH) modulates synaptic efficacy in various brain areas, including the cerebellum, which plays a role in motor coordination. Previous studies have shown that EtOH enhances tonic inhibition of cerebellar granule cells, which is one of the possible reasons for the alcohol-induced motor impairment. However, the effects of EtOH on molecular layer(More)
Noradrenaline (NA) modulates synaptic transmission in various sites of the central nervous system. In the cerebellar cortex, several studies have revealed that NA enhances inhibitory synaptic transmission via β-adrenoceptor-and cyclic AMP-dependent pathways. However, the effects of α-adrenoceptor activation on cerebellar inhibitory neurotransmission have(More)
Noradrenaline (NA) modulates synaptic transmission in various sites of the CNS. In the cerebellar cortex, several studies have revealed that NA enhances inhibitory synaptic transmission by beta-adrenoceptor-and cyclic AMP-dependent pathways. However, the effects of alpha-adrenoceptor activation on cerebellar inhibitory neurotransmission have not yet been(More)
gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter and also presumed to be a neurotrophic factor. GABA is synthesized by glutamate decarboxylase (GAD). A mouse lacking a 67kDa isoform of GAD (GAD67) has a reduced GABA level in its brain at birth and does not survive postnatally because of cleft palate. In this study, to investigate the(More)
Mice lacking the prion protein (PrP(C)) gene (Prnp), Ngsk Prnp (0/0) mice, show late-onset cerebellar Purkinje cell (PC) degeneration because of ectopic overexpression of PrP(C)-like protein (PrPLP/Dpl). Because PrP(C) is highly expressed in cerebellar neurons (including PCs and granule cells), it may be involved in cerebellar synaptic function and(More)
Activation of the type-1 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1) signaling pathway in the cerebellum involves activation of phospholipase C (PLC) and protein kinase C (PKC) for the induction of cerebellar long term depression (LTD). The PLC and PKC isoforms that are involved in LTD remain unclear, however. One previous study found no change in LTD in(More)
The structural maintenance of neural circuits is critical for higher brain functions in adulthood. Although several molecules have been identified as regulators for spine maintenance in hippocampal and cortical neurons, it is poorly understood how Purkinje cell (PC) spines are maintained in the mature cerebellum. Here we show that the calcium channel type 1(More)
In myelinated axons, K(+) channels are clustered in distinct membrane domains to regulate action potentials (APs). At nodes of Ranvier, Kv7 channels are expressed with Na(+) channels, whereas Kv1 channels flank nodes at juxtaparanodes. Regulation of axonal APs by K(+) channels would be particularly important in fast-spiking projection neurons such as(More)