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In sensory hair cells of the inner ear, mechanical amplification of small stimuli requires fast adaptation, the rapid closing of mechanically activated transduction channels. In frog and mouse vestibular hair cells, we found that the rate of fast adaptation depends on both channel opening and stimulus size and that it is modeled well as a release of a(More)
The mGluR agonist 1S,3R-ACPD induces a potent excitatory inward current in various central neurons, but the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Thus, we explored the signal transduction mechanism underlying the 1S,3R-ACPD-induced inward current in mouse cerebellar Purkinje cells. Iontophoretic application of 1S,3R-ACPD produced a group I mGluR(More)
Metabotropic gamma-aminobutyric acid type B (GABAB) and glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are postsynaptically co-expressed at cerebellar parallel fiber (PF)-Purkinje cell (PC) excitatory synapses, but their functional interactions are unclear. We found that mGluR1 agonist-induced currents and [Ca2+]i increases in PCs were enhanced following co-activation of(More)
Ethanol (EtOH) modulates synaptic efficacy in various brain areas, including the cerebellum, which plays a role in motor coordination. Previous studies have shown that EtOH enhances tonic inhibition of cerebellar granule cells, which is one of the possible reasons for the alcohol-induced motor impairment. However, the effects of EtOH on molecular layer(More)
After opening in response to mechanical stimuli, hair cell transduction channels adapt with fast and slow mechanisms that each depend on Ca(2+). We demonstrate here that transduction and adaptation require phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) for normal kinetics. PIP(2) has a striking distribution in hair cells, being excluded from the basal(More)
Noradrenaline (NA) modulates synaptic transmission in various sites of the CNS. In the cerebellar cortex, several studies have revealed that NA enhances inhibitory synaptic transmission by beta-adrenoceptor-and cyclic AMP-dependent pathways. However, the effects of alpha-adrenoceptor activation on cerebellar inhibitory neurotransmission have not yet been(More)
To elucidate the functional role of phospholipase Cbeta4 (PLCbeta4), which is highly expressed in the Purkinje cells of the rostral cerebellum, cerebellar long-term depression (LTD) and delay and trace eyeblink conditioning were investigated in PLCbeta4-deficient mice. Rostral cerebellar LTD and delay eyeblink conditioning were severely impaired, whereas(More)
To elucidate the role of phospholipase Cbeta (PLCbeta) isozymes in the cerebellum, the distributions of PLCbeta3 and PLCbeta4 were examined in wild-type and PLCbeta4-deficient mutant mice using immunohistochemistry, and the functions were evaluated by measurement of type 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1)-mediated inward current and Ca(2+)(More)
Activation of the type-1 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1) signaling pathway in the cerebellum involves activation of phospholipase C (PLC) and protein kinase C (PKC) for the induction of cerebellar long term depression (LTD). The PLC and PKC isoforms that are involved in LTD remain unclear, however. One previous study found no change in LTD in(More)
gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter and also presumed to be a neurotrophic factor. GABA is synthesized by glutamate decarboxylase (GAD). A mouse lacking a 67kDa isoform of GAD (GAD67) has a reduced GABA level in its brain at birth and does not survive postnatally because of cleft palate. In this study, to investigate the(More)