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As a model for bacterium-induced epithelial cell injury, we have studied the interaction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells grown on filters. Following an initial period of bacterial adhesion, foci of injured host cells, which consisted of a central region of cell debris, surrounded by cells that were permeable(More)
Contact between various epithelial cell lines and HIV chronically infected mononuclear cell lines results in a massive and rapid budding of HIV virions toward the epithelium followed by their internalization into epithelial endosome-like structures. Here it is shown that as early as 30 minutes after apical contact, primary virus isolates generated from(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 is mainly transmitted mucosally during sexual intercourse. We therefore evaluated the protective efficacy of a vaccine active at mucosal sites. Macaca mulatta monkeys were immunized via both the intramuscular and intranasal routes with an HIV-1 vaccine made of gp41-subunit antigens grafted on virosomes, a safe delivery(More)
The plasma membrane protein pattern of human oocytes was established using a highly sensitive nonisotopic technique. Unfertilized, 2-day-old metaphase II (MII) and immature oocytes were biotinylated at 4 degrees C and zona pellucida were mechanically removed. Proteins were resolved by 7% SDS PAGE, and electrotransferred to PVDF membranes. Plasma membrane(More)
After reaching early endosomes by receptor-mediated endocytosis, diphtheria toxin (DT) molecules have two possible fates. A large pool enters the degradative pathway whereas a few molecules become cytotoxic by translocating their catalytic fragment A (DTA) into the cytosol. Impairment of DT degradation by microtubule depolymerization does not block DT(More)
AIDS is mainly a sexually transmitted disease, and accordingly, mucosal tissues are the primary sites of natural human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) transmission. Mucosal immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibody specific for HIV-1 envelope gp41 subunit is one correlate of protection in individuals who are highly sexually exposed to HIV-1 but remain(More)
As one of the initial mucosal transmission pathways of HIV (HIV-1), epithelial cells translocate HIV-1 from apical to basolateral surface by nondegradative transcytosis. Transcytosis is initiated when HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins bind to the epithelial cell membrane. Here we show that the transmembrane gp41 subunit of the viral envelope binds to the(More)
The process of gamete fusion has been largely studied in the mouse and has revealed the crucial role of the tetraspanin CD9. By contrast, human gamete fusion remains largely unknown. We now show that an anti-alpha 6 integrin mAb (GoH3) strongly inhibited human sperm-egg fusion in human zona-free eggs. Furthermore, a mAb directed against CD151, a tetraspanin(More)
The polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) is transcytosed from the basolateral to the apical surface of polarized epithelial cells. We have previously shown that phosphorylation of Ser-664 in the cytoplasmic domain of the pIgR is a signal for its transcytosis. We now report that binding of a physiological ligand, dimeric IgA, to pIgR stimulates pIgR(More)
A 200-fold purification of the maturation-promoting factor or MPF from unfertilized eggs of Xenopus laevis is reported for the first time. Purification was achieved by three successive column chromatographies on hydroxyapatite, trisacryl blue and L-arginine-agarose. The presence of MPF was assessed by the usual maturation criteria after injections of test(More)