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The in vivo function of murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) was investigated in mice, carrying a null allele of the GM-CSF gene, that were generated by gene targeting techniques in embryonic stem cells. Although steady-state hematopoiesis was unimpaired in homozygous mutant animals, all animals developed the progressive(More)
Using the 9L experimental brain tumor model, we studied long-term tumor regression and immunologic consequences of tumor killing in a model of in vivo gene transfer of the herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) gene and ganciclovir (GCV) treatments. Fibroblasts modified to produce retroviral vectors carrying the HSV-TK gene were implanted into(More)
Retrovirus-mediated gene transfer into hematopoietic cells may provide a means of treating both inherited and acquired diseases involving hematopoietic cells. Implementation of this approach for disorders resulting from mutations affecting the beta-globin gene (e.g., beta-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia), however, has been hampered by the inability to(More)
The in vivo functions of interleukin-3 (IL-3) were investigated by generating IL-3-deficient mice. Although hematopoiesis was unimpaired in homozygous mutant animals, contact hypersensitivity reactions were compromised. IL-3 was required for efficient priming of hapten-specific contact hypersensitivity responses, but was dispensable for T-cell-dependent(More)
Somatic and germ-line mutations of p53 alleles inactivate the function of the protein. It has been suggested that mutant p53 can inactivate the wild-type protein and therefore have a trans-dominant negative effect. To investigate the interaction between wild-type and mutant proteins when both alleles are equally transcribed, we designed bicistronic vectors(More)
In this study we describe a new retroviral vector utilizing an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) from encephalomyocarditis virus to co-express two genes. One is the herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase gene (HSV-TK) which induces sensitivity to ganciclovir, and the second is the bacterial beta-galactosidase gene (LacZ) which was revealed by an(More)
Since the first description of the helper-free retrovirus vector by Mann et al. (1983), many improvements have been introduced to the system to increase titer, or to achieve better expression of the transduced genes in cells of different lineage. The typical form of recombinant retrovirus vector utilizes its 5' long terminal repeat (LTR) as a promoter unit(More)
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