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The Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, an ion transport protein, is expressed in the plasma membrane (PM) of virtually all animal cells. It extrudes Ca2+ in parallel with the PM ATP-driven Ca2+ pump. As a reversible transporter, it also mediates Ca2+ entry in parallel with various ion channels. The energy for net Ca2+ transport by the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger and its direction(More)
Calcium-45 efflux was measured in squid axons whose internal solute concentration was controlled by internal dialysis. Most of the Ca efflux requires either external Na (Na-Ca exchange) or external Ca plus in alkali metal ion (Ca-Ca exchange; cf. Blaustein & Russell, 1975). Both Na-Ca and Ca-Ca exchange are apparently mediated by a single mechanism because(More)
1. The average rate constant for loss of (45)Ca from an unpoisoned squid axon was 1.8 x 10(-3) min(-1), corresponding to an efflux of 0.2 p-mole/cm(2) sec.2. The Ca efflux from unpoisoned axons was reduced if external calcium was replaced with magnesium, or external sodium with lithium, choline or dextrose. Replacing both sodium and calcium reduced the(More)
The organization of calcium (Ca2+) stores in the sarcoplasmic and endoplasmic reticulum (S-ER) is poorly understood. The dynamics of the storage and release of calcium in the S-ER of intact, cultured astrocytes and arterial myocytes were studied with high-resolution imaging methods. The S-ER appeared to be a continuous tubular network; nevertheless, calcium(More)
1. Previous work has shown that the sodium efflux from the axons of Loligo forbesi increases when external sodium is replaced by lithium.2. The increase in efflux in lithium was unaffected by ouabain but was abolished by removal of external calcium; in these respects it differed from the potassium-dependent sodium efflux which was abolished by ouabain but(More)
1. 45-Ca uptake by pinched-off nerve terminals (synaptosomes) of rat brain incubated in standard physiological saline (including 132 mM-Na + 5mM-K + 1-2 mM-Ca) at 30 degrees C averages about 0-5 mumole Ca per g protein per minute. This may be equivalent to a Ca influx of about 0-03 p-mole/cm-2 sec. 2. The rate of 45-Ca uptake is increased when the(More)
Binding of3H-saxitoxin to Na+ channels was studied in subcellular fractions prepared from rat brain homogenates. Saxitoxin binding to synaptosomes was saturable with an apparent dissociation constant of about 1nm; about 1 pmol/mg protein was bound at saturating saxitoxin concentrations. A linear, nonsaturable component of saxitoxin binding accounted for(More)
An attempt is made to elucidate the cellular mechanisms which may account for the well-documented correlation between sodium metabolism and peripheral vascular resistance. As a starting point, the evidence that the Na electrochemical gradient across the vascular smooth muscle cell plasma membrane (sarcolemma) plays an important role in cell calcium(More)