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The Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, an ion transport protein, is expressed in the plasma membrane (PM) of virtually all animal cells. It extrudes Ca2+ in parallel with the PM ATP-driven Ca2+ pump. As a reversible transporter, it also mediates Ca2+ entry in parallel with various ion channels. The energy for net Ca2+ transport by the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger and its direction(More)
The organization of calcium (Ca2+) stores in the sarcoplasmic and endoplasmic reticulum (S-ER) is poorly understood. The dynamics of the storage and release of calcium in the S-ER of intact, cultured astrocytes and arterial myocytes were studied with high-resolution imaging methods. The S-ER appeared to be a continuous tubular network; nevertheless, calcium(More)
1. Previous work has shown that the sodium efflux from the axons of Loligo forbesi increases when external sodium is replaced by lithium.2. The increase in efflux in lithium was unaffected by ouabain but was abolished by removal of external calcium; in these respects it differed from the potassium-dependent sodium efflux which was abolished by ouabain but(More)
Calcium-45 efflux was measured in squid axons whose internal solute concentration was controlled by internal dialysis. Most of the Ca efflux requires either external Na (Na-Ca exchange) or external Ca plus in alkali metal ion (Ca-Ca exchange; cf. Blaustein & Russell, 1975). Both Na-Ca and Ca-Ca exchange are apparently mediated by a single mechanism because(More)
1. Fifty to ninety per cent of the Na efflux from axons of Loligo forbesi is inhibited by ouabain. The properties of the ouabain-sensitive component of the Na efflux are different from those of the ouabain-insensitive component.2. In unpoisoned axons with an average Na content of 75 m-mole/kg axoplasm the bulk of the ouabain-sensitive Na efflux is dependent(More)
The influence of the transmembrane Na+ gradient on the intracellular free calcium concentration, [Ca2+]i, was studied in Sepharose gel-filtered platelets from healthy human subjects, using the Ca-sensitive fluorescent dye, fura-2. Raising the internal Na+ concentration, [Na+]i, by Na+ pump inhibition with 0.05 mM ouabain, without changing external Na+ did(More)
Three isoforms (alpha1, alpha2, and alpha3) of the catalytic (alpha) subunit of the plasma membrane (PM) Na+ pump have been identified in the tissues of birds and mammals. These isoforms differ in their affinities for ions and for the Na+ pump inhibitor, ouabain. In the rat, alpha1 has an unusually low affinity for ouabain. The PM of most rat cells contains(More)
1. The average rate constant for loss of (45)Ca from an unpoisoned squid axon was 1.8 x 10(-3) min(-1), corresponding to an efflux of 0.2 p-mole/cm(2) sec.2. The Ca efflux from unpoisoned axons was reduced if external calcium was replaced with magnesium, or external sodium with lithium, choline or dextrose. Replacing both sodium and calcium reduced the(More)
Signaling by two classes of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) stores was studied in primary cultured rat astrocytes. Cytosolic and intra-ER Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)](CYT) and [Ca(2+)](ER)) were measured with, respectively, Fura-2 and Furaptra, in separate experiments. The agonists, glutamate and ATP, released Ca(2+) primarily from cyclopiazonic acid(More)