Mordecai P. Blaustein

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The Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, an ion transport protein, is expressed in the plasma membrane (PM) of virtually all animal cells. It extrudes Ca2+ in parallel with the PM ATP-driven Ca2+ pump. As a reversible transporter, it also mediates Ca2+ entry in parallel with various ion channels. The energy for net Ca2+ transport by the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger and its direction(More)
The organization of calcium (Ca2+) stores in the sarcoplasmic and endoplasmic reticulum (S-ER) is poorly understood. The dynamics of the storage and release of calcium in the S-ER of intact, cultured astrocytes and arterial myocytes were studied with high-resolution imaging methods. The S-ER appeared to be a continuous tubular network; nevertheless, calcium(More)
Calcium-45 efflux was measured in squid axons whose internal solute concentration was controlled by internal dialysis. Most of the Ca efflux requires either external Na (Na-Ca exchange) or external Ca plus in alkali metal ion (Ca-Ca exchange; cf. Blaustein & Russell, 1975). Both Na-Ca and Ca-Ca exchange are apparently mediated by a single mechanism because(More)
Signaling by two classes of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) stores was studied in primary cultured rat astrocytes. Cytosolic and intra-ER Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)](CYT) and [Ca(2+)](ER)) were measured with, respectively, Fura-2 and Furaptra, in separate experiments. The agonists, glutamate and ATP, released Ca(2+) primarily from cyclopiazonic acid(More)
Potassium-stimulated 45Ca entry into rat brain synaptosomes was measured at times ranging from 1 to 60 s. The K-rich solutions were used to depolarize the synaptosomes. Backflux of 45Ca from the synaptosomes was negligible during the first 10-20 s of incubation. An initial ("fast") phase of K-stimulated Ca entry, lasting from 1 to 2 s was observed. This(More)
Three isoforms (alpha1, alpha2, and alpha3) of the catalytic (alpha) subunit of the plasma membrane (PM) Na+ pump have been identified in the tissues of birds and mammals. These isoforms differ in their affinities for ions and for the Na+ pump inhibitor, ouabain. In the rat, alpha1 has an unusually low affinity for ouabain. The PM of most rat cells contains(More)
Considerable evidence, including recent direct observations, suggest that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) stores in neurons, glia, and other cell types, consists of spatially-distinct compartments that can be individually loaded and unloaded. In addition, sub-plasmalemmal ('junctional') components of the ER (jER) are functionally coupled to the overlying(More)
Regulation of the cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) by an Na/Ca exchanger was studied in primary cultured rat cortical astrocytes. [Ca2+]cyt was measured by digital imaging in cells loaded with fura-2. The resting [Ca2+]cyt, approximately 150 nM, was only slightly increased by reducing the extracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+]o) to 6.2 mM, or(More)
Depolarization-induced (potassium-stimulated) influx of 45Ca, 85Sr, and 133Ba was measured in synaptosomes prepared from rat brain. There are two phases of divalent cation entry, "fast" and "slow;" each phase is mediated by channels with distinctive characteristics. The fast channels inactivate (within 1 s) and are blocked by low concentrations (less than 1(More)