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The Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, an ion transport protein, is expressed in the plasma membrane (PM) of virtually all animal cells. It extrudes Ca2+ in parallel with the PM ATP-driven Ca2+ pump. As a reversible transporter, it also mediates Ca2+ entry in parallel with various ion channels. The energy for net Ca2+ transport by the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger and its direction(More)
The organization of calcium (Ca2+) stores in the sarcoplasmic and endoplasmic reticulum (S-ER) is poorly understood. The dynamics of the storage and release of calcium in the S-ER of intact, cultured astrocytes and arterial myocytes were studied with high-resolution imaging methods. The S-ER appeared to be a continuous tubular network; nevertheless, calcium(More)
Three isoforms (alpha1, alpha2, and alpha3) of the catalytic (alpha) subunit of the plasma membrane (PM) Na+ pump have been identified in the tissues of birds and mammals. These isoforms differ in their affinities for ions and for the Na+ pump inhibitor, ouabain. In the rat, alpha1 has an unusually low affinity for ouabain. The PM of most rat cells contains(More)
Calcium-45 efflux was measured in squid axons whose internal solute concentration was controlled by internal dialysis. Most of the Ca efflux requires either external Na (Na-Ca exchange) or external Ca plus in alkali metal ion (Ca-Ca exchange; cf. Blaustein & Russell, 1975). Both Na-Ca and Ca-Ca exchange are apparently mediated by a single mechanism because(More)
Signaling by two classes of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) stores was studied in primary cultured rat astrocytes. Cytosolic and intra-ER Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)](CYT) and [Ca(2+)](ER)) were measured with, respectively, Fura-2 and Furaptra, in separate experiments. The agonists, glutamate and ATP, released Ca(2+) primarily from cyclopiazonic acid(More)
Potassium-stimulated 45Ca entry into rat brain synaptosomes was measured at times ranging from 1 to 60 s. The K-rich solutions were used to depolarize the synaptosomes. Backflux of 45Ca from the synaptosomes was negligible during the first 10-20 s of incubation. An initial ("fast") phase of K-stimulated Ca entry, lasting from 1 to 2 s was observed. This(More)
Considerable evidence, including recent direct observations, suggest that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) stores in neurons, glia, and other cell types, consists of spatially-distinct compartments that can be individually loaded and unloaded. In addition, sub-plasmalemmal ('junctional') components of the ER (jER) are functionally coupled to the overlying(More)
Regulation of the cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) by an Na/Ca exchanger was studied in primary cultured rat cortical astrocytes. [Ca2+]cyt was measured by digital imaging in cells loaded with fura-2. The resting [Ca2+]cyt, approximately 150 nM, was only slightly increased by reducing the extracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+]o) to 6.2 mM, or(More)
The interaction between two nonhomologous K+ channel toxins, Tityus serrulatus (scorpion) toxin tityustoxin-K alpha (TsTX-K alpha) and Dendroaspis angusticeps (snake) toxin dendrotoxin (alpha-DTX), was investigated on K+ currents in B82 fibroblast cells transformed to express the Kv1.2 K+ channel. As demonstrated previously, alpha-DTX was a potent blocker(More)