Mordecai P . Blaustein

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The Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, an ion transport protein, is expressed in the plasma membrane (PM) of virtually all animal cells. It extrudes Ca2+ in parallel with the PM ATP-driven Ca2+ pump. As a reversible transporter, it also mediates Ca2+ entry in parallel with various ion channels. The energy for net Ca2+ transport by the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger and its direction(More)
The plasma membrane sodium-potassium pumps that regulate intracellular sodium in most animal cells have specific, high-affinity receptors for the digitalis glycosides and their aglycones. This has fostered speculation that there is an endogenous ligand. We have purified and structurally identified by mass spectroscopy an endogenous substance from human(More)
Ouabain is a well-known compound but a newly discovered adrenal cortical hormone that plays a role in cell Na+ regulation and in whole body salt and water balance. Ouabain may also be a paracrine hormone and may be secreted by some central nervous system neurons as well as by other types of cells. This article focuses on the cellular mechanisms that(More)
Calcium appears to be an essential participant in axon excitation processes. Many other polyvalent metal ions have calcium-like actions on axons. We have used the voltage-clamped lobster giant axon to test the effect of several of these cations on the position of the peak initial (sodium) and steady-state (potassium) conductance vs. voltage curves on the(More)
Immunocytochemistry reveals that the Na/Ca exchanger (NCX) in neuronal somata and astrocytes is confined to plasma membrane (PM) microdomains that overlie sub-PM (junctional) endoplasmic reticulum (jER). By contrast, the PM Ca(2+) pump (PMCA) is more uniformly distributed in the PM. At presynaptic nerve terminals, the NCX distribution is consistent with(More)
1. 45-Ca uptake by pinched-off nerve terminals (synaptosomes) of rat brain incubated in standard physiological saline (including 132 mM-Na + 5mM-K + 1-2 mM-Ca) at 30 degrees C averages about 0-5 mumole Ca per g protein per minute. This may be equivalent to a Ca influx of about 0-03 p-mole/cm-2 sec. 2. The rate of 45-Ca uptake is increased when the(More)
The organization of calcium (Ca2+) stores in the sarcoplasmic and endoplasmic reticulum (S-ER) is poorly understood. The dynamics of the storage and release of calcium in the S-ER of intact, cultured astrocytes and arterial myocytes were studied with high-resolution imaging methods. The S-ER appeared to be a continuous tubular network; nevertheless, calcium(More)
Calcium-45 efflux was measured in squid axons whose internal solute concentration was controlled by internal dialysis. Most of the Ca efflux requires either external Na (Na-Ca exchange) or external Ca plus in alkali metal ion (Ca-Ca exchange; cf. Blaustein & Russell, 1975). Both Na-Ca and Ca-Ca exchange are apparently mediated by a single mechanism because(More)
The interaction between two nonhomologous K+ channel toxins, Tityus serrulatus (scorpion) toxin tityustoxin-K alpha (TsTX-K alpha) and Dendroaspis angusticeps (snake) toxin dendrotoxin (alpha-DTX), was investigated on K+ currents in B82 fibroblast cells transformed to express the Kv1.2 K+ channel. As demonstrated previously, alpha-DTX was a potent blocker(More)