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Recently, the work of Garg et al. (FOCS 2013) gave the first candidate general-purpose ob-fuscator. This construction is built upon multilinear maps, also called a graded encoding scheme. Several subsequent works have shown that variants of this obfuscator achieves the highest notion of security (VBB security) against " purely algebraic " attacks, namely(More)
A Probabilistically Checkable Proof (PCP) allows a random-ized verifier, with oracle access to a purported proof, to probabilistically verify an input statement of the form " x ∈ L " by querying only few bits of the proof. A zero-knowledge PCP (ZKPCP) is a PCP with the additional guarantee that the view of any verifier querying a bounded number of proof(More)
—Format Preserving Encryption (FPE) schemes en-crypt a plaintext into a ciphertext while preserving its format (e.g., a valid social-security number is encrypted into a valid social-security number), thus allowing encrypted data to be stored and used in the same manner as unencrypted data. Motivated by the always-increasing use of cloud-computing and memory(More)
An AMD circuit over a nite eld F is a randomized arithmetic circuit that oers the best possible protection against additive attacks. That is, the eect of every additive attack that may blindly add a (possibly dierent) element of F to every internal wire of the circuit can be simulated by an ideal attack that applies only to the inputs and outputs. Genkin et(More)
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