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UNLABELLED Type III secretion systems (TTSSs) are employed by pathogens to translocate host cells with effector proteins, which are crucial for virulence. The dynamics of effector translocation, behavior of the translocating bacteria, translocation temporal order, and relative amounts of each of the translocated effectors are all poorly characterized. To(More)
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is an important human pathogen that causes acute infantile diarrhea. The type IV bundle-forming pili (BFP) of typical EPEC strains are dynamic fibrillar organelles that can extend out and retract into the bacterium. The bfpF gene encodes for BfpF, a protein that promotes pili retraction. The BFP are involved in(More)
Cells adapt to environmental changes by efficiently adjusting gene expression programs. Staphylococcus aureus, an opportunistic pathogenic bacterium, switches between defensive and offensive modes in response to quorum sensing signal. We identified and studied the structural characteristics and dynamic properties of the core regulatory circuit governing(More)
Ndd1 activates the Mcm1-Fkh2 transcription factor to transcribe mitotic regulators. The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome activated by Cdh1 (APC/C(Cdh1)) mediates the degradation of proteins throughout G1. Here we show that the APC/C(Cdh1) ubiquitinates Ndd1 and mediates its degradation, and that APC/C(Cdh1) activity suppresses accumulation of Ndd1(More)
Competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) were recently introduced as RNA transcripts that affect each other's expression level through competition for their microRNA (miRNA) coregulators. This stems from the bidirectional effects between miRNAs and their target RNAs, where a change in the expression level of one target affects the level of the miRNA regulator,(More)
OBJECTIVE Transient global amnesia (TGA), an abrupt occurrence of severe anterograde episodic amnesia accompanied by repetitive questioning, has been known for more than 50 years. Despite extensive research, there is no clear evidence for the underlying pathophysiological basis of TGA. Moreover, there is no neuroimaging method to evaluate TGA in real time.(More)
Mixed feedback loops combining transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulations are common in cellular regulatory networks. They consist of two genes, encoding a transcription factor and a small noncoding RNA (sRNA), which mutually regulate each other's expression. We present a theoretical and numerical study of coherent mixed feedback loops of this(More)
Level-1 consensus is a property of a preference profile. Intuitively, it means that there exists some preference relation such that, when ordering the other preference-relations by increasing distance from it, the closer preferences are more frequent in the profile. This is a desirable property, since it enhances the stability of the social choice by(More)
We present analytical results for the distribution of shortest path lengths between random pairs of nodes in configuration model networks. The results, which are based on recursion equations, are shown to be in good agreement with numerical simulations for networks with degenerate, binomial, and power-law degree distributions. The mean, mode, and variance(More)