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UNLABELLED Type III secretion systems (TTSSs) are employed by pathogens to translocate host cells with effector proteins, which are crucial for virulence. The dynamics of effector translocation, behavior of the translocating bacteria, translocation temporal order, and relative amounts of each of the translocated effectors are all poorly characterized. To(More)
Cells adapt to environmental changes by efficiently adjusting gene expression programs. Staphylococcus aureus, an opportunistic pathogenic bacterium, switches between defensive and offensive modes in response to quorum sensing signal. We identified and studied the structural characteristics and dynamic properties of the core regulatory circuit governing(More)
Competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) were recently introduced as RNA transcripts that affect each other's expression level through competition for their microRNA (miRNA) coregulators. This stems from the bidirectional effects between miRNAs and their target RNAs, where a change in the expression level of one target affects the level of the miRNA regulator,(More)
Ndd1 activates the Mcm1-Fkh2 transcription factor to transcribe mitotic regulators. The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome activated by Cdh1 (APC/C(Cdh1)) mediates the degradation of proteins throughout G1. Here we show that the APC/C(Cdh1) ubiquitinates Ndd1 and mediates its degradation, and that APC/C(Cdh1) activity suppresses accumulation of Ndd1(More)
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is an important human pathogen that causes acute infantile diarrhea. The type IV bundle-forming pili (BFP) of typical EPEC strains are dynamic fibrillar organelles that can extend out and retract into the bacterium. The bfpF gene encodes for BfpF, a protein that promotes pili retraction. The BFP are involved in(More)
Mixed feedback loops combining transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulations are common in cellular regulatory networks. They consist of two genes, encoding a transcription factor and a small noncoding RNA (sRNA), which mutually regulate each other's expression. We present a theoretical and numerical study of coherent mixed feedback loops of this(More)
OBJECTIVE Transient global amnesia (TGA), an abrupt occurrence of severe anterograde episodic amnesia accompanied by repetitive questioning, has been known for more than 50 years. Despite extensive research, there is no clear evidence for the underlying pathophysiological basis of TGA. Moreover, there is no neuroimaging method to evaluate TGA in real time.(More)
Mor Nitzan, 2, 3 Shmuel Nitzan, and Erel Segal-Halevi School of Computer Science, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904, Israel Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904, Israel Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91120, Israel Department of Economics, Bar-Ilan(More)
Small RNAs are integral regulators of bacterial gene expression, the majority of which act posttranscriptionally by basepairing with target mRNAs, altering translation or mRNA stability. 6S RNA, however, is a small RNA that is a transcriptional regulator, acting by binding directly to σ(70)-RNA polymerase (σ(70)-RNAP) and preventing its binding to gene(More)