Learn More
In the retina, nitric oxide (NO) functions in network coupling, light adaptation, neurotransmitter receptor function, and synaptic release. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is present in the retina of every vertebrate species investigated. However, although nNOS can be found in every retinal cell type, little is known about the production of NO in(More)
Studies have demonstrated that deletion of equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1) is associated with reduced glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1) level, and consequently increased ethanol intake. In this study, we measured changes in GLT1 and ENT1 levels in prefrontal cortex (PFC), and nucleus accumbens (NAc) core and shell associated with alcohol drinking(More)
In the central nervous system, adenosine and adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) play an important role in regulating neuronal activity as well as controlling other neurotransmitter systems, such as, GABA, glutamate, and dopamine. Ethanol increases extracellular adenosine levels that regulate the ataxic and hypnotic/sedative effects of ethanol. Interestingly,(More)
Alcohol-sensitive type 1 equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT1) regulates adenosine-mediated glutamate neurotransmission in the brain. Our behavioral studies suggest that the diminished aversive effects of ethanol and the increased resistance to acute ethanol intoxication in mice lacking ENT1, could be related to increased voluntary ethanol(More)
Adenosine-regulated glutamate signaling in astrocytes is implicated in many neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. In this study, we examined whether adenosine A1 receptor regulates EAAT2 expression in astrocytes using pharmacological agents and siRNAs. We found that adenosine A1 receptor-specific antagonist DPCPX or PSB36 decreased EAAT2 expression(More)
Neurotensin receptor type 1 (NTS1) is known to mediate a variety of biological functions of neurotensin (NT) in the central nervous system. In this study, we found that NTS1 null mice displayed decreased sensitivity to the ataxic effect of ethanol on the rotarod and increased ethanol consumption when given a free choice between ethanol and tap water(More)
Alcohol-sensitive type 1 equilibrative nucleotide transporter (ENT1) is known to regulate glutamate signaling in the striatum as well as ethanol intoxication. However, it was unclear whether altered extracellular glutamate levels in ENT1(-/-) mice contribute to ethanol-induced behavioral changes. Here we report that altered glutamate signaling in ENT1(-/-)(More)
Adenosine signaling has been implicated in the pathophysiology of many psychiatric disorders including alcoholism. Striatal adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) play an essential role in both ethanol drinking and the shift from goal-directed action to habitual behavior. However, direct evidence for a role of striatal A2AR signaling in ethanol drinking and habit(More)
BACKGROUND Mice lacking type 1 equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT1(-/-)) exhibit increased ethanol-preferring behavior compared with wild-type littermates. This phenotype of ENT1(-/-) mice appears to be correlated with increased glutamate levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). However, little is known about the downstream consequences of increased(More)
Techniques are described for forming on the culture substrate a narrow pathway of material derived from medium conditioned by embryonic non-neuronal cells. There is a precise correlation between the known location of the pathway and the spatial distribution of neurites extended from whole ciliary ganglia or dissociated neurons grown on the patterned(More)