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BACKGROUND The wild grass species Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium hereafter) is emerging as a new model system for grass crop genomics research and biofuel grass biology. A draft nuclear genome sequence is expected to be publicly available in the near future; an explosion of gene expression studies will undoubtedly follow. Therefore, stable reference(More)
BACKGROUND DNA extraction methods for PCR-quality DNA from calluses and plants are not time efficient, since they require that the tissues be ground in liquid nitrogen, followed by precipitation of the DNA pellet in ethanol, washing and drying the pellet, etc. The need for a rapid and simple procedure is urgent, especially when hundreds of samples need to(More)
Competitive inhibition of transcription factors by small proteins is an intriguing component of gene regulatory networks in both animals and plants. The small interfering proteins possess limited sequence homologies to specific transcription factors but lack one or more protein motifs required for transcription factor activities. They interfere with the(More)
An effective dengue vaccine should elicit immune responses against all four different dengue virus serotypes. This study optimized the codon usage of a gene encoding consensus dengue virus envelope protein domain III (cEDIII) with cross-neutralizing activity against four dengue virus serotypes for plant expression. Then, a plant expression vector was(More)
A rice cell suspension culture with the rice α-amylase 3D promoter expression system which is induced by sucrose starvation was previously reported to generate a good yield of recombinant proteins. However, this expression system is limited by the accumulation of undesirable α-amylase and proteases in the culture medium. Rice α-amylase is a dominant protein(More)
Dengue (DEN) is one of the most important emerging mosquito-borne viral human diseases. Therefore, an effective dengue vaccine with immune responses against all four dengue virus serotypes is highly needed. A fusion gene encoding a synthetic consensus envelope protein domain III (scEDIII) of dengue virus with neutralizing activity against the four dengue(More)
To increase immune responses of plant-based vaccines in intestine mucosal immune systems, a synthetic neutralizing epitope (sCOE) gene of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was fused with M cell-targeting ligand (Co1) and introduced into a plant expression vector under the control of rice amylase 3D promoter. The sCOE–Co1 fusion gene was introduced into(More)
BACKGROUND Immunization with the spike protein (S) of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-coronavirus (CoV) in mice is known to produce neutralizing antibodies and to prevent the infection caused by SARS-CoV. Polyethylenimine 25K (PEI) is a cationic polymer which effectively delivers the plasmid DNA. RESULTS In the present study, the immune responses(More)
We previously induced protective immune response by oral immunization with yeast expressing the ApxIIA antigen. The ApxI antigen is also an important factor in the protection against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 infection; therefore, the protective immunity in mice following oral immunization with Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing either(More)