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Recent studies suggest that androgen-driven alteration to the autocrine and paracrine factors produced by scalp dermal papilla (DP) cells may be a key to androgen-potentiated balding. Here, we screened dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-regulated genes in balding DP cells and found that dickkopf 1 (DKK-1) is one of the most upregulated genes. DKK-1 messenger RNA is(More)
BACKGROUND Osteoporosis in men is an important public health problem. Because of the tendency of the numbers of the elderly population to increase, and age-specific incidence of fractures, it is inevitable that the health burden due to fractures will increase. Chronic alcoholism is associated with other risk factors, such as poor nutrition, leanness, liver(More)
PURPOSE Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease resulting in blindness for which there is no current treatment. Although the members of the family of RP diseases differ in etiology, their outcomes are the same: apoptosis of rods and then by cones. Recently, the bile acid tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) has been shown to have(More)
BACKGROUND It is believed that the length of the actively growing phase of the anagen hair cycle mainly contributes to hair length. Recent studies showed that maintenance of β-catenin activity in the dermal papilla cells (DPCs) enables hair follicles to keep actively growing. Topical minoxidil treatment promotes hair growth in men with androgenetic(More)
Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is a very rare disease characterized by the virtual absence of eccrine glands, dry skin, scanty hair, and dental abnormalities. It is transmitted by an X-linked recessive gene or rarely an autosomal recessive gene. Therefore it is only males who fully express the condition. It is caused by mutations within the ED1(More)
MRI is a noninvasive diagnostic modality that reveals anatomy, physiology, and function in vivo without depth limitation or optical interference. MRI application to the retina, however, remains challenging. We improved spatial resolution to resolve layer-specific structure and functional responses in the retina and confirmed the laminar resolution in an(More)
Recently, we suggested that Dickkopf 1 (DKK-1) is a pathogenic mediator involved in male pattern baldness. As premature catagen onset is a key characteristic of male pattern baldness, in this study, we evaluated whether DKK-1 has a role as a catagen inducer in hair cycling. Herein, we report that recombinant human DKK-1 (rhDKK-1) injection into the(More)
Most retinal imaging has been performed using optical techniques. This paper reviews alternative retinal imaging methods based on MRI performed with spatial resolution sufficient to resolve multiple well-defined retinal layers. The development of these MRI technologies to study retinal anatomy, physiology (blood flow, blood volume, and oxygenation) and(More)
PURPOSE To test the hypothesis that subretinal electrical stimulation from a microphotodiode array (MPA) exerts a neuroprotective effect in Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats through the induction of growth factors. METHODS At postnatal day 21, RCS rats were divided into four groups in which one eye per rat received treatment: (A) active MPA, (M)(More)
PURPOSE This study aims to investigate quantitative basal blood flow as well as hypercapnia- and hyperoxia-induced blood flow changes in the retinas of the Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats with spontaneous retinal degeneration, and to compare with those of normal rat retinas. METHODS Experiments were performed on male RCS rats at post-natal days P90(More)