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Dantrolene is the drug of choice for the treatment of malignant hyperthermia (MH) and is also useful for treatment of spasticity or muscle spasms associated with several clinical conditions. The current study examines the mechanisms of dantrolene's action on skeletal muscle and shows that one of dantrolene's mechanisms of action is to block(More)
Cytoplasmic dynein is a microtubule-based mechanochemical protein that plays an essential role in cell division, vesicle transport, and cytoplasmic membrane organization. As a molecular motor, dynein utilizes an ATP hydrolysis mechanism to bind and release microtubules and to undergo conformational changes that result in a net displacement towards the(More)
Ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1) releases Ca(2+) from intracellular stores upon nerve impulse to trigger skeletal muscle contraction. Effector binding at the cytoplasmic domain tightly controls gating of the pore domain of RyR1 to release Ca(2+). However, the molecular mechanism that links effector binding to channel gating is unknown due to lack of(More)
Ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1) produces spatially and temporally defined Ca2+ signals in several cell types. How signals received in the cytoplasmic domain are transmitted to the ion gate and how the channel gates are unknown. We used EGTA or neuroactive PCB 95 to stabilize the full closed or open states of RyR1. Single-channel measurements in the(More)
Calmodulin (CaM) binds to the ryanodine receptor/calcium release channel of skeletal muscle (RyR1), both in the absence and presence of Ca(2+), and regulates the activity of the channel activity by activating and inhibiting it, respectively. Using cryo-electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction, we found that one apoCaM binds per RyR1 subunit(More)
RyR1 is an intracellular calcium channel with a central role in muscle contraction. We obtained a three-dimensional reconstruction of the RyR1 in the closed state at a nominal resolution of approximately 10 A using cryo-EM. The cytoplasmic assembly consists of a series of interconnected tubular structures that merge into four columns that extend into the(More)
The 12 kDa FK506-binding protein (FKBP12) constitutively binds to the calcium release channel RyR1. Removal of FKBP12 using FK506 or rapamycin causes an increased open probability and an increase in the frequency of sub-conductance states in RyR1. Using cryo-electron microscopy and single-particle image processing, we have determined the 3D difference map(More)
Cytoplasmic dynein is a minus-end directed microtubule-based motor. Using a molecular genetic approach, we have begun to dissect structure-function relationships of dynein in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium. Expression of a carboxy-terminal 380-kDa fragment of the heavy chain produces a protein that approximates the size and shape of the globular,(More)
Dyneins form one of the three major families of cytoskeleton-based motor proteins that together drive most of the visible forms of cell and organelle movement. We present here a 3D reconstruction of a cytoplasmic dynein motor domain obtained by electron microscopy, at 25 Angstrom resolution. This work demonstrates a basic motor architecture of a flat,(More)
Historically, the task of determining the structure of membrane proteins has been hindered by experimental difficulties associated with their lipid-embedded domains. Here, we provide an overview of recently developed experimental and predictive tools that are changing our view of this largely unexplored territory - the 'Wild West' of structural biology.(More)