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Acute lymphoblastic leukemias carrying a chromosomal translocation involving the mixed-lineage leukemia gene (MLL, ALL1, HRX) have a particularly poor prognosis. Here we show that they have a characteristic, highly distinct gene expression profile that is consistent with an early hematopoietic progenitor expressing select multilineage markers and individual(More)
p53 binds enhancers to regulate key target genes. Here, we globally mapped p53-regulated enhancers by looking at enhancer RNA (eRNA) production. Intriguingly, while many p53-induced enhancers contained p53-binding sites, most did not. As long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are prominent regulators of chromatin dynamics, we hypothesized that p53-induced lncRNAs(More)
BACKGROUND Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is curable with chemotherapy in approximately 80 percent of patients. However, the cause of treatment failure in the remaining 20 percent of patients is largely unknown. METHODS We tested leukemia cells from 173 children for sensitivity in vitro to prednisolone, vincristine, asparaginase, and(More)
Drug resistance remains a major obstacle to successful cancer treatment. A database of drug-associated gene expression profiles was screened for molecules whose profile overlapped with a gene expression signature of glucocorticoid (GC) sensitivity/resistance in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells. The screen indicated that the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin(More)
Kinases are dysregulated in most cancers, but the frequency of specific kinase mutations is low, indicating a complex etiology in kinase dysregulation. Here, we report a strategy to rapidly identify functionally important kinase targets, irrespective of the etiology of kinase pathway dysregulation, ultimately enabling a correlation of patient genetic(More)
BACKGROUND Genetic subtypes of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) are used to determine risk and treatment in children. 25% of precursor B-ALL cases are genetically unclassified and have intermediate prognosis. We aimed to use a genome-wide study to improve prognostic classification of ALL in children. METHODS We constructed a classifier based on gene(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that control the expression of around 60% of the human protein-coding genes. In the past decade, deregulation of miRNAs (by expression and/or function) has been associated with the pathogenesis, progression and prognosis of different diseases, including leukemia. The number of discovered genes encoding miRNAs has(More)
We recently found that MLL-rearranged acute lymphoblastic leukemias (MLL) have a unique gene expression profile including high level expression of the receptor tyrosine kinase FLT3. We hypothesized that FLT3 might be a therapeutic target in MLL and found that 5 of 30 MLLs contain mutations in the activation loop of FLT3 that result in constitutive(More)
The prognosis of infant ALL, characterized by a high incidence of the immature CD10 negative B-lineage ALL (proB ALL) is poor. This study aimed to determine the resistance profile of infant ALL cells. In vitro drug resistance was determined by the MTT assay of 395 children with ALL at initial diagnosis: there were 21 infants <1.5 years of which nine <1(More)
Infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is characterized by a high incidence of mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene rearrangements, a poor outcome, and resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. One exception is cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C), to which infant ALL cells are highly sensitive. To investigate the mechanism underlying Ara-C sensitivity in infants with(More)