Monique Gangloff

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The Toll family of class I transmembrane receptors recognizes and responds to diverse structures associated with pathogenic microorganisms. These receptors mediate initial responses in innate immunity and are required for the development of the adaptive immune response. Toll receptor signaling pathways are also implicated in serious autoimmune diseases such(More)
LPS signals through a membrane bound-complex of the lipid binding protein MD-2 and the receptor TLR4. In this study we identify discrete regions in both MD-2 and TLR4 that are required for signaling by lipid IVa, an LPS derivative that is an agonist in horse but an antagonist in humans. We show that changes in the electrostatic surface potential of both(More)
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which is produced by Gram-negative bacteria, is a powerful activator of innate immune responses. LPS binds to the proteins Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and MD2 to activate pro-inflammatory signalling pathways. The TLR4-MD2 receptor complex is crucial for the host recognition of Gram-negative bacterial infection, and pathogens have(More)
The cytokine Spätzle is the ligand for Drosophila Toll, the prototype of an important family of membrane receptors that function in embryonic patterning and innate immunity. A dimeric precursor of Spätzle is processed by an endoprotease to produce a form (C-106) that cross-links Toll receptor ectodomains and establishes signaling. Here we show that before(More)
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from the outer cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria is a potent stimulator of the mammalian innate immune system. The Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathway triggers the inflammatory responses induced by LPS in a process that requires the interaction of LPS-bound myeloid differentiation-2 (MD-2) with TLR4. Here we propose two possible(More)
Signal transduction by the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) is central to host defence against many pathogenic microorganisms and also underlies a large burden of human disease. Thus, the mechanisms and regulation of signalling by TLRs are of considerable interest. In this Review, we discuss the molecular basis for the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular(More)
Estrogen receptors are members of the nuclear receptor steroid family that exhibit specific structural features, ligand-binding domain sequence identity and dimeric interactions, that single them out. The crystal structures of their DNA-binding domains give some insight into how nuclear receptors discriminate between DNA response elements. The various(More)
Members of the Toll family of single-pass transmembrane receptors are key mediators of innate immunity in both vertebrates and invertebrates. They respond to various pathogen-associated stimuli and transduce the complex signalling responses that are required for inflammation and for the subsequent development of adaptive immunity. Here, we propose a(More)
The Drosophila Toll receptor, which functions in both embryonic patterning and innate immunity to fungi and Gram-positive bacteria, is activated by a dimeric cytokine ligand, Spätzle (Spz). Previous studies have suggested that one Spz cross-links two Toll receptor molecules to form an activated complex. Here we report electron microscopy structures of the(More)
The crystal structure of a triple cysteine to serine mutant ERalpha ligand-binding domain (LBD), complexed with estradiol, shows that despite the presence of a tightly bound agonist ligand, the protein exhibits an antagonist-like conformation, similar to that observed in raloxifen and 4-hydroxytamoxifen-bound structures. This mutated receptor binds(More)