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The habenular complexes represent phylogenetically constant structures in the diencephalon of all vertebrates. Available evidence suggests that this area is engaged in a variety of important biological functions, such as reproductive behaviors, central pain processing, nutrition, sleep-wake cycles, stress responses, and learning. Based on Nissl-stained(More)
The localization of peptidergic, catecholaminergic, and nitroxidergic nerve fibers in the ventral leptomeningeal connective tissue compartment was studied in whole-mount preparations and serial semithin and ultrathin sections. For immunocytochemistry, whole-mount preparations of the leptomeninges and ventral brain slices with the meninges were incubated as(More)
This study was designed to explore whether the basal adrenocortical activity is related with pain-related coping, nonverbal pain behavior, depressive mood, and fatigue in patients with acute and chronic nonspecific low back pain. 19 patients with acute low back pain (ALBP) and 24 with chronic low back pain (CLBP) participated in the study. The(More)
The gross anatomy and nerve supply of the bill of echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) is described in relation to its function as an outstanding sensory organ. The sensory innervation of the skin of the echidna snout was investigated by means of frontal serial sections, after decalcification of the specimens. A comprehensive light and electron microscopic(More)
Two types of electroreceptors, the ampullary and the tuberous electroreceptor (silurid knollenorgan) in the epidermis of the catfish, Pseudocetopsis spec., were investigated with semithin and ultrathin serial sections. The ampullary organ contains one or two sensory cells which are embedded in supporting cells at the base of open epithelial canals. They(More)
The dura mater encephali of the rat is richly supplied by myelinated (A-axons) and unmyelinated (C-axons) nerve fibres. For the supratentorial part the main nerve supply stems from all three branches of the trigeminal nerve. Finally, 250 myelinated and 800 unmyelinated nerve fibres innervate one side of the supratentorial part. The vascular bed of the dura(More)
Caenorhabditis elegans MEC-4 and MEC-10 are subunits of the degenerin/epithelial Na+ channel (DEG/ENaC) ion channel superfamily thought to be associated with MEC-2 (a stomatin-like protein) in a mechanotransducing molecular complex in specialized touch sensory neurons. A key question is whether analogous molecular complexes in higher organisms transduce(More)
Hyaline cells of the auditory organ of the spectacled caiman contain smooth muscle-like filament bundles within their basal cell pole. These bundles were heavily labeled with antibodies to actin, myosin and alpha-actinin (muscular Z-line protein). Since hyaline cells are firmly attached to the basilar membrane these cells may actively modify the stiffness(More)
In brain death, spinal reflexes and automatisms are observed which may cause irritation and even doubt in the diagnosis. In the literature there are no dedicated descriptions of the diversity and of neuroanatomical considerations. In 278 examinations of 235 patients for the determination of brain death, on 42 occasions obvious spinal reflexes and/or spinal(More)