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We developed a method, named GraFix, that considerably improves sample quality for structure determination by single-particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM). GraFix uses a glycerol gradient centrifugation step in which the complexes are centrifuged into an increasing concentration of a chemical fixation reagent to prevent aggregation and to stabilize(More)
  • B Sander, M M Golas, H Stark
  • 2003
Three-dimensional electron cryomicroscopy of randomly oriented single particles is a method that is suitable for the determination of three-dimensional structures of macromolecular complexes at molecular resolution. However, the electron-microscopical projection images are modulated by a contrast transfer function (CTF) that prevents the calculation of(More)
  • B Sander, M M Golas, H Stark
  • 2003
The technique of single-particle electron cryomicroscopy is currently making possible the 3D structure determination of large macromolecular complexes at constantly increasing levels of resolution. Work at resolution now attainable requires many thousands of individual images to be processed computationally. The most time-consuming step of the(More)
Spliceosomal small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) are essential components of the nuclear pre-mRNA processing machinery. A hallmark of these particles is a ring-shaped core domain generated by the binding of Sm proteins onto snRNA. PRMT5 and SMN complexes mediate the formation of the core domain in vivo. Here, we have elucidated the mechanism of this(More)
Little is known about the higher-order structure of prespliceosomal A complexes, in which pairing of the pre-mRNA's splice sites occurs. Here, human A complexes were isolated under physiological conditions by double-affinity selection. Purified complexes contained stoichiometric amounts of U1, U2 and pre-mRNA, and crosslinking studies indicated that these(More)
Single-particle electron cryomicroscopy is a powerful method for three-dimensional (3D) structure determination of macromolecular assemblies. Here we address the challenge of determining a 3D structure in the absence of reference models. The 3D structures are determined by alignment and weighted averaging of densities obtained by native cryo random conical(More)
Oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylates (OEGMA) of various chain lengths (i.e., 9, 23, or 45 EG units) and N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) were copolymerized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), yielding well-defined P(DMAEMA-co-OEGMA) copolymers with increasing OEGMA molar fractions (F(OEGMA)) but a comparable degree of(More)
The unique structural motifs and self-recognition properties of DNA can be exploited to generate self-assembling DNA nanostructures of specific shapes using a 'bottom-up' approach. Several assembly strategies have been developed for building complex three-dimensional (3D) DNA nanostructures. Recently, the DNA 'origami' method was used to build(More)
The splicing factor SF3b is a multiprotein complex essential for the accurate excision of introns from pre-messenger RNA. As an integral component of the U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) and the U11/U12 di-snRNP, SF3b is involved in the recognition of the pre-messenger RNA's branch site within the major and minor spliceosomes. We have determined(More)
To better understand the compositional and structural dynamics of the human spliceosome during its activation, we set out to isolate spliceosomal complexes formed after precatalytic B but prior to catalytically active C complexes. By shortening the polypyrimidine tract of the PM5 pre-mRNA, which lacks a 3' splice site and 3' exon, we stalled spliceosome(More)