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Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a devastating disease in which aberrant synaptic plasticity plays a major role. We identify matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 as a novel synaptic enzyme and a key pathogenic factor in two animal models of TLE: kainate-evoked epilepsy and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling-induced epilepsy. Notably, we show that the sensitivity(More)
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the prefrontal cortex, which non-invasively alters cortical activity, has been established to affect executive functions in humans. We hypothesized that changes in excitability by tDCS, found to improve cognitive functions dependent on moderate prefrontal cortex activity, would operate similarly in animals(More)
Retrosplenial cortex (RSC) together with the hippocampus is a component of the spatial memory circuit. To elucidate the role of the RSC in spatial memory formation in the immediate presence of both relevant and irrelevant spatial stimuli, we used a new place avoidance task, in which rats learn to avoid shock in an unmarked place. In the present study, we(More)
The purpose of the present study was to define auditory cortical areas in the dog on the basis of thalamocortical connectivity patterns. Connections between the posterior thalamic region and auditory ectosylvian cortex were studied using axonally transported tracers: fluorochromes and biotinylated dextran amine. Cyto- and chemoarchitecture provided grounds(More)
Thalamic and amygdaloid connections of three association auditory areas (AA1, AA2, AA3) of the superior temporal gyrus (STG) were investigated. In order to define the projections of the particular areas, injections of fluorescent tracers were made in three monkeys. Distribution of labeling indicates that area AA1 differs from areas AA2 and AA3 in patterns(More)
Studies in cultured cells have demonstrated the existence of higher-order epigenetic mechanisms, determining the relationship between expression of the gene and its position within the cell nucleus. It is unknown, whether such mechanisms operate in postmitotic, highly differentiated cell types, such as neurons in vivo. Accordingly, we examined whether the(More)
PML is a tumor suppressor protein involved in the pathogenesis of promyelocytic leukemia. In non-neuronal cells, PML is a principal component of characteristic nuclear bodies. In the brain, PML has been implicated in the control of embryonic neurogenesis, and in certain physiological and pathological phenomena in the adult brain. Yet, the cellular and(More)
Neurons located in the dorsomedial pontine rapid eye movement (REM) sleep-triggering region send axons to the medial medullary reticular formation (mMRF). This pathway is believed to be important for the generation of REM sleep motor atonia, but other than that they are glutamatergic little is known about neurochemical signatures of these pontine neurons(More)
The retrosplenial cortex is involved in spatial memory function, but the contribution of its individual areas is not well known. To elucidate the involvement of retrosplenial cortical areas 29c and 30 in spatial memory, we analyzed the expression of c-Fos in these areas in the experimental group of rats that were trained in a spatial place avoidance task,(More)
Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a rare multi-system genetic disorder characterised by growth and developmental delay, distinctive facial dysmorphism, limb malformations and multiple organ defects. The disease is caused by mutations in genes responsible for the formation and regulation of cohesin complex. About half of the cases result from mutations in(More)