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The phenotypic differentiation of relic P. sylvestris in southern Europe and southwestern Asia was verified using thirty-two populations sampled from the Iberian Peninsula, Massif Central, Balkan Peninsula, Crimea and Anatolia. Twenty-one morphological and anatomical needle traits and 18 cone morphological characteristics were examined to describe the(More)
A vitrification method enabled efficient cryopreservation of embryogenic tissue (ETs) of Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) at −196 °C in liquid nitrogen (LN). Correctly formed, normal somatic embryos were generated from ETs that had been thawed after removal from LN. The pregrowth-dehydration method involved preculture of ETs with sucrose (0.25–1.00 M) in the(More)
Fine-scale spatial genetic structure (SGS) has profound ecological and genetic consequences for plant populations, and some studies indicate that clonal reproduction may significantly enhance SGS. Clonality is widespread among dioecious species, but little is known about the relationship between clonal reproduction and SGS in the frame of sexual dimorphism.(More)
Random genetic drift, natural selection and restricted gene dispersal are basic factors of the spatial genetic structure (SGS) in plant populations. Clonal reproduction has a profound effect on population dynamics and genetic structure and thus emerges as a potential factor in contributing to and modelling SGS. In order to assess the impact of clonality on(More)
In the present study, a genetic analysis of nuclear microsatellites was conducted in Abies cilicica populations growing in West Taurus, East Taurus, and Lebanon mountains to obtain evidence for significant genetic differentiation. Despite range fragmentation, all examined populations tended to maintain a relatively high level of genetic diversity (H E  =(More)
Białowieża Primeval Forest lies within the boreal part of the Norway spruce range, which, according to pollen data, was formed by a refugium located in the Russian Upland. However, recent genetic studies have indicated that spruce from the Eastern Carpathian refugium also occurs in Białowieża Forest. In order to investigate whether the Norway spruce from(More)
An investigation into the role of calcium in the opacification process has focused on the relationship between the rate of opacification and the increase in the concentration of lens calcium. A laser scanning system was designed to monitor continuously transmitted light in opaque lenses, thereby permitting a correlation between calcium concentrations and(More)
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