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Aim Global-scale studies are required to identify broad-scale patterns in the distributions of species, to evaluate the processes that determine diversity and to determine how similar or different these patterns and processes are among different groups of freshwater species. Broad-scale patterns of spatial variation in species distribution are central to(More)
These guidelines are intended to give evidence-based recommendations for the use of enteral nutrition (EN) in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). They were developed by an interdisciplinary expert group in accordance with officially accepted standards and are based on all relevant publications since(More)
Using data for 25,780 species categorized on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List, we present an assessment of the status of the world's vertebrates. One-fifth of species are classified as Threatened, and we show that this figure is increasing: On average, 52 species of mammals, birds, and amphibians move one category closer to(More)
BACKGROUND The management of many pathogens, which are of concern to humans and their livestock, is complicated by the pathogens' ability to cross-infect multiple host species, including wildlife. This has major implications for the management of such diseases, since the dynamics of infection are dependent on the rates of both intra- and inter-specific(More)
Monitoring the health of wildlife populations is important for understanding and controlling the risk of infections to livestock, humans and/or other wildlife. In this paper, we analyse the results of surveys of parasites and non-specific signs of diseases carried out on organs from 638 red and 107 sika deer culled in four regions of Scotland between 1991(More)
100% of the inks used are vegetable oil based 95% of press chemicals are recycled for further use and on average 99% of any waste associated with this production will be recycled. This document is printed on Cyclus; an FSC certified paper containing 100% post consumer recycled fibre, supporting the responsible use of forest resources. The unavoidable carbon(More)
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB; Mycobacterium bovis) is a bacterial infection of cattle that also affects certain wildlife species. Culling badgers (Meles meles), the principal wildlife host, results in perturbation of the badger population and an increased level of disease in cattle. Therefore, the priority for future management must be to minimize the risk of(More)
Wild deer can feature in the epidemiology of a wide range of livestock and human diseases in the United Kingdom by representing a source of disease via various transmission routes. This review highlights current and possible future infections of deer in the UK which may have an impact on livestock and/or human health. Increases in deer abundance as well as(More)
Rates of biodiversity loss are higher in freshwater ecosystems than in most terrestrial or marine ecosystems, making freshwater conservation a priority. However, prioritization methods are impeded by insufficient knowledge on the distribution and conservation status of freshwater taxa, particularly invertebrates. We evaluated the extinction risk of the(More)