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Flow cytometry (FC) has been introduced to characterize and to assess the physiological states of microorganisms in conjunction with the classical plate-counting method. To show the applicability of the technique, in particular for the development of kinetic models, pure culture fermentation experiments were followed over time, using both prokaryotic(More)
SO(2) is widely used in cider fermentation but also in other alcoholic beverages such as wine. Although the authorized limit is 200 ppm total SO(2), the International Organizations recommend its total elimination or at least reduction due to health concerns. Addition of SO(2) to apple juice at levels frequently used in industrial cidermaking (100 mg/L)(More)
The flow cytometry (FC) technique used with certain fluorescent dyes (ChemChrome V6 [CV6], DRAQ5, and PI) has proven useful to label and to detect different physiological states of yeast and malolactic bacterium starters conducting cider fermentation over time (by performing sequential inoculation of microorganisms). First, the technique was tested with(More)
Malolactic fermentation (MLF) is an important step in cider production in order to allowing for improvement of microbiological stability and organoleptic characteristics of cider. Induction of this fermentation by using starter cultures enables a better control over this bioprocess, but although it is a common practice in winemaking, starters specifically(More)
Different sizes of viable-but-nonculturable cell subpopulations of a lactic acid bacterium strain were induced by adding increasing amounts of SO(2). The experimental data obtained here were fitted to a segregated kinetic model developed previously. This procedure allowed us to determine in quantitative terms the contribution of this physiological state to(More)