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PURPOSE Primary chemotherapy was administered to patients with tumors that measured > or = 2.5 cm in largest diameter to decrease the size of the primary tumor and allow for effective local and distant control while avoiding mastectomy. PATIENTS AND METHODS Two prospective nonrandomized studies were performed that used different regimens of primary(More)
BACKGROUND Only a few studies have evaluated the long-term effects of adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. Furthermore, neither the relation between the risk of second malignancies and type of adjuvant regimen utilized nor the interaction between chemotherapy and breast irradiation or age of the patients have been described in detail. METHODS A total(More)
PURPOSE EUROCARE collected data from population-based cancer registries in 20 European countries. We used this data to compare childhood cancer survival time trends in Europe. PATIENTS AND METHODS Survival in 44,129 children diagnosed under the age of 15 years during 1983 to 1994 was analyzed. Sex- and age-adjusted 5-year survival trends for 10 common(More)
PURPOSE Neither hormone-related nor genetics risk factors have been associated with the development of highly proliferative HER2-positive breast carcinomas. Because the majority of HER2-positive tumors present the amplification of the oncogene, we asked whether genomic instability triggered by irradiation might be involved in the induction of(More)
BACKGROUND Tumor shrinkage is a common end point used in screening new cytotoxic agents. The standard World Health Organization criterion for partial response is a 50% or more decrease in the sum of the products of two measurements (the maximum diameter of a tumor and the largest diameter perpendicular to this maximum diameter) of individual tumors.(More)
PURPOSE To identify the prognostic factors, treatment, and outcome of children affected by renal cell carcinoma (RCC). PATIENTS AND METHODS The series included 41 patients (18 males and 23 females) with a median age of 124 months observed at the 11 Italian Association for Pediatric Hematology and Oncology centers from January 1973 to January 2001.(More)
OBJECTIVE To ascertain whether childhood melanoma presents any peculiar clinical features or differences in prognosis with respect to adults, we retrospectively analyzed the data from 33 patients who were up to 14 years of age and treated for cutaneous melanoma at the Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan, over a 25-year period. METHODS Primary lesions were(More)
The genetic aetiology of familial aggregations of breast cancer and sarcomas has been elucidated only in part. In this study, 23 unrelated individuals from families with one case of sarcoma and at least one case of breast cancer were screened for mutations in the TP53, BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Families were classified according to their conformity to the(More)
PURPOSE Brain necrosis or other subacute iatrogenic reactions has been recognized as a potential complication of radiotherapy (RT), although the possible synergistic effects of high-dose chemotherapy and RT might have been underestimated. METHODS AND MATERIALS We reviewed the clinical and radiologic data of 49 consecutive children with malignant brain(More)
PURPOSE Hypothyroidism is one of the earliest endocrine effects of craniospinal irradiation (CSI). The effects of radiation also depend on circulating thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which acts as an indicator of thyrocyte function and is the most sensitive marker of thyroid damage. Hence, our study was launched in 1998 to evaluate the protective effect(More)