Monica Tan

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Our novel technique of pen torch transillumination (PTI) uses a cheap and easily available instrument (Penlite-LP212®, Energizer®, Missouri, USA) to visualize superficial veins invisible to the naked eye. We evaluate the efficacy of PTI in improving venepuncture success rate (SR) for patients with poor venous access. This prospective randomized controlled(More)
AIM Atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) is widely accepted as the most common type of congenital heart defect in trisomy 21. Most of these studies, however, were conducted in Caucasian communities. The few Asian studies that had been conducted on this subject yielded different results. In the largest study of its kind in Asia, we described the(More)
Dear Sir, Thank you for your comments. All the patients recruited had venepuncture performed in daylight between 0800H and 1800H in a six-bedded open ward, except for a case that was performed at 2000H. Pen Torch Transillumination (PTI) functioned well in daylight, without the need to dim the lights to visualize the veins. No patient required central venous(More)
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