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Intravascular pH was measured within the lysosomes and newly formed phagosomes in cultured mouse peritoneal macrophages. The kinetics of pH change in both vacuolar systems was quantitatively determined within a large cell population by fluorescence spectroscopy. Additionally, pH changes within individual phagosomes were followed semiquantitatively using(More)
When foreign bodies, including many microorganisms, are ingested by cultured macrophages, they become enclosed in phagosomes, with which lysosomes usually fuse and then discharge their enzymes and other contents into the resulting phagolysosomes. Such fusion is, however, diminished or absent after the phagocytosis of some pathogens, notably Mycobacterium(More)
The weak base ammonium chloride has been previously reported to inhibit lysosomal movements and phagosome-lysosome (Ph-L) fusion in cultured mouse macrophages (M phi), thus reducing delivery, to an intraphagosomal infection, of endocytosed solutes that have concentrated in secondary lysosomes. We have now addressed the question, whether NH4Cl might affect(More)
The cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been implicated as a contributor to injury in several neurological disorders. The amounts of IL-6 released by the cerebral cortical tissue of mice of varying maturational age groups were measured and found to increase with age. Specifically, the basal level of IL-6 released from the tissue of infant (less than 2 weeks(More)
Production of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) by murine tumors has been shown to induce immune suppressive cells having homology with GM progenitor cells. The purpose of this study was to determine if human head and neck cancers secrete GM-CSF, if this is associated with an intratumoral presence of similar cells expressing the(More)
The effects on lysosomal movements produced by the weak base ammonium chloride and by a representative polyanion poly-D-glutamic acid (PGA), previously reported to inhibit phagosome-lysosome (P-L) fusion, have been studied in cultured mouse macrophages using direct visual phase-contrast microscopy, a previously described (1, 3, 7) fluorescence assay of(More)
We have investigated the mechanism of the inhibition of phagosome-lysosome (P-L) fusion in macrophages known to occur after infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and by the mouse pathogen Mycobacterium microti. We have used an M. microti infection and have studied, first, the saltatory movements of periphagosomal secondary lysosomes by means of visual(More)
The role of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in directly stimulating metastatic spread by Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells was examined with the use of an in vitro migration model for tumor dissemination. The extent to which cloned metastatic and nonmetastatic LLC cells migrated out of glass capillary tubes in vitro reflected their capacity to form pulmonary(More)
BACKGROUND Comprehensive biotic surveys, or 'all taxon biodiversity inventories' (ATBI), have traditionally been limited in scale or scope due to the complications surrounding specimen sorting and species identification. To circumvent these issues, several ATBI projects have successfully integrated DNA barcoding into their identification procedures and(More)