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Buried wood (BW: downed deadwood buried more than 50% by soil, litter, or ground vegetation) is a common but understudied part of forest ecosystems. We reviewed the literature and conducted a meta-analysis of BW that included new data from Australia, Belarus, Canada, Germany, Japan, Norway, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, the USA, and Wales. Buried wood occurred(More)
Recent developments in hardware and software have increased the possibilities and reduced the costs of hyperspectral proximal sensing. Through the analysis of high resolution spectroscopic measurements at the laboratory or field scales, this monitoring technique is suitable for quantitative estimates of biochemical and biophysical variables related to the(More)
Hyperspectral monitoring of large areas (more than 10 km(2)) can be achieved via the use of a system employing spectrometers and CMOS cameras. A robust and efficient algorithm for automatically combining multiple, overlapping images of a scene to form a single composition (i.e., for the estimation of the point-to-point mapping between views), which uses(More)
A new algorithm of particle identification suitable for particle tracking technique in fluid mechanics is proposed and tested with synthetic images specifically developed with different particle parameters. The new approach is based on the solution of the optical flow equation via a sum-of-squared-difference method. Particles are detected through the(More)
The proper design of a product life cycle may contribute both to the optimization of primary raw material usage and to the reduction of waste environmental impacts. Recycling may enter the life cycle of products in the contexts of production of secondary raw materials and reduction of waste extensive disposal in landfills. Tradition plants for plastic(More)
A finite-size (or scale) Lyapunov exponent (FSLE), lambdaa(x), is presented in a statistical mechanical framework and employed to characterize mixing in a variety of laboratory and computational fluid mechanics experiments. The FSLE is the exponential rate at which two particles separate from a distance x to ax. Laboratory particle tracking experiments are(More)
This paper presents an original device for the separation of plastic polymers from mixtures. Due to the combination of a characteristic flow pattern developing within the apparatus and density, shape and size differences among two or more polymers, this device allows their separation into two products, one collected within the instrument and the other one(More)
Traditional plants for plastic separation in homogeneous products employ material physical properties (for instance density). Due to the small intervals of variability of different polymer properties, the output quality may not be adequate. Sensing technologies based on hyperspectral imaging have been introduced in order to classify materials and to(More)
The present work deals with the experimental fluid mechanics analysis of a wavy-bottomed cascade photobioreactor, to characterize the extent and period of recirculatory and straight-flowing streams establishing therein as a function of reactor inclination and liquid flow rate. The substream characterization via Feature Tracking (FT) showed that a local(More)