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A principal challenge currently facing biologists is how to connect the complete DNA sequence of an organism to its development and behaviour. Large-scale targeted-deletions have been successful in defining gene functions in the single-celled yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but comparable analyses have yet to be performed in an animal. Here we describe the(More)
BACKGROUND Spindle positioning during an asymmetric cell division is of fundamental importance to ensure correct size of daughter cells and segregation of determinants. In the C. elegans embryo, the first spindle is asymmetrically positioned, and this asymmetry is controlled redundantly by two heterotrimeric Galpha subunits, GOA-1 and GPA-16. The Galpha(More)
Correct placement and orientation of the mitotic spindle is essential for segregation of localized components and positioning of daughter cells. Although these processes are important in many cells, few factors that regulate spindle placement are known. Previous work has shown that GPB-1, the Gbeta subunit of a heterotrimeric G protein, is required for(More)
The mammalian Ku70 and Ku86 proteins form a heterodimer that binds to the ends of double-stranded DNA in vitro and is required for repair of radiation-induced strand breaks and V(D)J recombination [1,2]. Deletion of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes HDF1 and HDF2--encoding yKu70p and yKu80p, respectively--enhances radiation sensitivity in a rad52(More)
BACKGROUND Generation of asymmetry in the one-cell embryo of C. elegans establishes the anterior--posterior axis (A-P), and is necessary for the proper identity of early blastomeres. Conserved PAR proteins are asymmetrically distributed and are required for the generation of this early asymmetry. The small G protein Cdc42 is a key regulator of polarity in(More)
A prior genetic study indicated that activity of Sir silencing proteins at a hypothetical AGE locus is essential for long life span. In this model, the SIR4-42 mutation would direct the Sir protein complex to the AGE locus, giving rise to a long life span. We show by indirect immunofluorescence that Sir3p and Sir4p are redirected to the nucleolus in the(More)
During division of metazoan cells, the nucleus disassembles to allow chromosome segregation, and then reforms in each daughter cell. Reformation of the nucleus involves chromatin decondensation and assembly of the double-membrane nuclear envelope around the chromatin; however, regulation of the process is still poorly understood. In vitro, nucleus formation(More)
Spindle positioning is an essential feature of asymmetric cell division. The conserved PAR proteins together with heterotrimeric G proteins control spindle positioning in animal cells, but how these are linked is not known. In C. elegans, PAR protein activity leads to asymmetric spindle placement through cortical asymmetry of Galpha regulators GPR-1/2.(More)
During asymmetric cell division, cell polarity and cell cycle progression are tightly coordinated, yet mechanisms controlling both these events are poorly understood. Here we show that the Bora homologue SPAT-1 regulates both PAR polarity and cell cycle progression in C. elegans embryos. We find that, similarly to mammalian cells, SPAT-1 acts with PLK-1 and(More)
Proper orientation and positioning of the mitotic spindle is essential for the correct segregation of fate determinants during asymmetric cell division. Although heterotrimeric G proteins and their regulators are essential for spindle positioning in many cell types, their mechanism of action remains unclear. In this study, we show that dyrb-1, which encodes(More)