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This report demonstrates that introduction of microRNAs (miRNAs) specific to embryonic stem cells enhances the production of mouse induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. The miRNAs miR-291-3p, miR-294 and miR-295 increase the efficiency of reprogramming by Oct4, Sox2 and Klf4, but not by these factors plus cMyc. cMyc binds the promoter of the miRNAs,(More)
DNA damage checkpoint genes, such as p53, are frequently mutated in human cancer, but the selective pressure for their inactivation remains elusive. We analysed a panel of human lung hyperplasias, all of which retained wild-type p53 genes and had no signs of gross chromosomal instability, and found signs of a DNA damage response, including histone H2AX and(More)
During replicative stress, Claspin mediates the phosphorylation and consequent activation of Chk1 by ATR. We found that during recovery from the DNA replication checkpoint response, Claspin is degraded in a betaTrCP-dependent manner. In vivo, Claspin is phosphorylated in a canonical DSGxxS degron sequence, which is typical of betaTrCP substrates.(More)
We recently described a novel checkpoint pathway that functions early in mitosis to delay chromosome condensation in response to microtubule poisons. The only gene implicated so far in this checkpoint pathway is chfr, whose protein product contains a RING domain and has ubiquitin ligase activity in vitro. The significance of this activity in vivo is(More)
53BP1 and NFBD1/MDC1 are recruited rapidly to sites of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), where they are hypothesized to function downstream of the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) checkpoint kinase as "mediators" of DNA DSB signaling. To test this hypothesis, we suppressed 53BP1 and NFBD1/MDC1 expression by small interference RNA and monitored ATM(More)
53BP1 is a conserved nuclear protein that is implicated in the DNA damage response. After irradiation, 53BP1 localizes rapidly to nuclear foci, which represent sites of DNA double strand breaks, but its precise function is unclear. Using small interference RNA (siRNA), we demonstrate that 53BP1 functions as a DNA damage checkpoint protein. 53BP1 is required(More)
Neural cancers display cellular hierarchies with self-renewing tumorigenic cancer stem cells (CSCs) at the apex. Instructive cues to maintain CSCs are generated by both intrinsic networks and the niche microenvironment. The CSC-microenvironment relationship is complex, as CSCs can modify their environment and extrinsic forces induce plasticity in the(More)
p53 Binding protein 1 (53BP1) belongs to a family of evolutionarily conserved DNA damage checkpoint proteins with C-terminal BRCT domains and is most likely the human ortholog of the budding yeast Rad9 protein, the first cell cycle checkpoint protein to be described. 53BP1 localizes rapidly to sites of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) and its initial(More)
Phosphorylation of the p53 tumor suppressor at Ser20 (murine Ser23) has been proposed to be critical for disrupting p53 interaction with its negative regulator, MDM2, and allowing p53 stabilization. To determine the importance of Ser23 for the function of p53 in vivo, we generated a mouse in which the endogenous p53 locus was targeted to replace Ser23 with(More)