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Liver organogenesis and cancerogenesis share common mechanisms. HOX genes control normal development, primary cellular processes and are characterized by a unique genomic network organization. Less is known about the involvement of HOX genes with liver cancerogenesis. The comparison of the HOX gene network expression between nontumorous livers and(More)
The HOX network contains 39 genes that act as transcriptional regulators and control crucial cellular functions during both embryonic development and adult life. Inside the network, this is achieved according to the rules of temporal and spatial co-linearity with 3' HOX genes acting on the anterior part of the body, central HOX genes on the thoracic part(More)
Adipogenesis is regulated by the sequential activation of a series of transcription factors: the C/EBP proteins of type beta and delta trigger the process while PPARgamma and C/EBPalpha induce the differentiation from pre-adipocyte to adipocyte, followed by adipo-specific gene expression. A number of observations suggest the involvement of genes controlling(More)
Genito-urinary malignancies (prostate, bladder, renal and testicular cancers) rank high among human tumors with an incidence that varies with age and organ involvement. Prostate cancer is the most commonly detected male cancer followed by bladder and kidney cancers, less frequent in women. Testicular cancer, although rare, is the most frequent cancer in(More)
OBJECTIVES To discuss the current knowledge on induction, production, sustenance and promotion of neuroendocrine differentiation in human prostate cancer. METHODS Review of the literature using PubMed search and scientific journal publications. RESULTS Morphological evidence explains some functional relationship between neuroendocrine and neoplastic(More)
Many oncogenic drivers related to the pathogenesis of OSCC have identified, but the discovery of new molecular markers for early detection of this cancer, remains one the main goals of clinical research. HOX genes regulate normal embryonic development, cell differentiation and other critical processes in eukaryotic cell life. Several studies have(More)
The molecular mechanisms responsible for the metastatic progression of melanoma have not been fully defined yet. We have recently shown that an important role in this process is certainly played by HOX genes, whose regulation is under control of particular non-coding RNAs, some of which are present within the HOX locus. HOTAIR is the most studied among(More)
Molecular etiology of thyroid cancers has been widely studied, and several molecular alterations have been identified mainly associated with follicular and papillary histotypes. However, the molecular bases of the complex pathogenesis of thyroid carcinomas remain poorly understood. HOX genes regulate normal embryonic development, cell differentiation and(More)
Homeobox genes are transcription factors primarily involved in embryonic development. Several homeobox gene families have so far been identified: Hox, EMX, PAX, MSX as well as many isolated divergent homeobox genes. Among these, Hox genes are most intriguing for having a regulatory network structure organization. Recent indications suggest the involvement(More)
Soft tissue tumors are a heterogeneous group of tumors, traditionally classified according to morphology and histogenesis. Molecular classification divides sarcomas into two main categories: (a) sarcomas with specific genetic alterations and (b) sarcomas showing multiple complex karyotypic abnormalities without any specific pattern. Most chromosomal(More)