Learn More
CONTEXT There is no effective treatment for systemic sclerosis and related fibrosing diseases. Recently the action of CYP11A1 on vitamin D(3) was shown to produce biologically active 20S-hydroxyvitamin D [20(OH)D(3)] and 20,23(OH)(2)D(3), 20,22(OH)(2)D(3), and 17,20,23(OH)(3)D(3). OBJECTIVES Because 20(OH)D(3) is noncalcemic (nontoxic) in vivo at very(More)
Systemic scleroderma (SSc) is one of the most complex systemic autoimmune diseases. It targets the vasculature, connective tissue-producing cells (namely fibroblasts/myofibroblasts), and components of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Clinical and pathologic manifestations of SSc are the result of: (1) innate/adaptive immune system abnormalities(More)
Aged individuals are more susceptible to infections due to a general decline in immune function broadly referred to as immune senescence. While age-related changes in the adaptive immune system are well documented, aging of the innate immune system remains less well understood, particularly in nonhuman primates. A more robust understanding of age-related(More)
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an acquired multiorgan connective tissue disease with variable mortality and morbidity dictated by clinical subset type. The etiology of the basic disease and pathogenesis of the systemic autoimmunity, fibrosis, and fibroproliferative vasculopathy are unknown and debated. In this review, the spectrum of vascular abnormalities and(More)
Being born small for gestational age (SGA) confers significantly increased risks of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Accumulating evidence suggests that an SGA fetus results from a poorly perfused and abnormally developed placenta. Some of the placental features seen in SGA, such as abnormal cell turnover and impaired nutrient transport, can be reproduced(More)
Primary infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV) results in varicella (more commonly known as chickenpox) after which VZV establishes latency in sensory ganglia. VZV can reactivate to cause herpes zoster (shingles), a debilitating disease that affects one million individuals in the US alone annually. Current vaccines against varicella (Varivax) and(More)
Placental dysfunction is central to many complications of human pregnancy including pre-eclampsia (PE), intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) and stillbirth. The precise molecular pathophysiology of placental dysfunction in these conditions is not known, although oxidative and nitrative stresses have been implicated. Metabolites are low molecular weight(More)
Seminiferous tubules of rats exposed to x-irradiation before birth were subjected to micropuncture in situ at 50 days of age to obtain samples of fluid 4 h after ligation of efferent ducts. The concentrations of cations in this fluid were: potassium, 39.7 +/- 1.2 mM, and sodium, 136.3 +/- 1.2 mM (means and standard errors, n = 5). Histologic examination(More)
Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a multi-system disorder thought to be mediated by circulating factors released from damaged placental villous trophoblast. There is extensive evidence of changes in the villous tissue in PE, some of which may be replicated by culturing villous tissue in hypoxic conditions. Metabolic footprinting offers a hypothesis-generating strategy(More)
Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a multi-system disorder of pregnancy hypothesised to arise from circulating factors derived from an unhealthy placenta. Some changes in placental phenotype seen in PE can be reproduced by culture in altered oxygen (O2) tension. Currently, these circulating factors are unidentified, partly due to the complexity of maternal plasma.(More)