Monica B. Emelko

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Many of the methods routinely used to quantify microscopic discrete particles and microorganisms are based on enumeration, yet these methods are often known to yield highly variable results. This variability arises from sampling error and variations in analytical recovery (i.e., losses during sample processing and errors in counting), and leads to(More)
Bacteriophages are bacterial viruses with unique characteristics that make them excellent surrogates for mammalian pathogenic viruses in environmental studies. Simple and reliable methodologies for isolation, detection, characterization and enumeration of somatic and F-specific bacteriophage are available in the literature. Limited information or methods(More)
Eight saturated column experiments were conducted to examine the effects of solution chemistry and grain size on the transport of colloids through crushed silica sand. Two sizes of colloids, 0.025-microm bacteriophage (MS-2) and 1.5-microm carboxylated microspheres, were used as surrogates for the transport of pathogenic viruses and bacteria, respectively.(More)
Polystyrene latex microspheres are widely used as surrogates for biocolloid transport in porous media; however, relatively few studies directly compare microsphere transport with that of the microorganism it is intended to represent, particularly at the field scale. Here, we compared the transport behaviour of a bacterium (Escherichia coli RS2g; 1.2 microm(More)
More than a billion people have limited access to safe drinking water; over 2 million die each year from water-related diarrhea, which is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in less economically developed countries (UNICEF and WHO, 2009). In more economically developed countries, increasing demands on water resources raise concerns about(More)
The erosion characteristics and bed stability of wildfire-affected stream sediment were measured in an annular flume. Biofilms were grown in the flume on cohesive streambed sediments collected from a wildfire affected stream and a reference undisturbed stream in southern Alberta, Canada. Examined factors that influence sediment erosion, settling and bed(More)
The limited efficacy of disinfectants, other than ultraviolet irradiation and ozonation, as a barrier against Cryptosporidium parvum in drinking water treatment has underscored the increased importance of oocyst removal by filtration. Currently, no reliable surrogates have been identified for C. parvum removal by filtration. As a result, evaluations of the(More)
Forests form the critical source water areas for downstream drinking water supplies in many parts of the world, including the Rocky Mountain regions of North America. Large scale natural disturbances from wildfire and severe insect infestation are more likely because of warming climate and can significantly impact water quality downstream of forested(More)
Knowledge of the variability in pathogen or indicator concentrations over time at a particular location (e.g. in drinking water sources) is essential in implementation of concentration-based regulations and in quantitative microbial risk assessment. Microbial enumeration methods, however, are known to yield highly variable counts (even among replicates) and(More)
In many parts of the world, forests provide high quality water for domestic, agricultural, industrial, and ecological needs, with water supplies in those regions inextricably linked to forest health. Wildfires have the potential to have devastating effects on aquatic ecosystems and community drinking water supply through impacts on water quantity and(More)