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The multi-vehicle covering tour problem is de"ned on a graph G"(<6=, E), where = is a set of vertices that must collectively be covered by up to m vehicles. The problem consists of determining a set of total minimum length vehicle routes on a subset of <, subject to side constraints, such that every vertex of = is within a prespeci"ed distance from a route.(More)
Lipoxins (LX) are bioactive eicosanoids that activate human monocytes and inhibit neutrophils. LXA4 is rapidly converted by monocytes to inactive products, and to resist metabolism, synthetic analogs of LXA4 were designed. Here, we examined the bioactivity of several LXA4 analogs in monocytes and found, for chemotaxis, 15(R/S)-methyl-LXA4 and 15-epi-LXA4(More)
Human neutrophils at inflammatory sites may be an important source of the chemotactic cytokines macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha (M1P-1 alpha; a C-C chemokine) and interleukin 8 (IL-8; a C-X-C chemokine). In this study, we show that the inflammatory microcrystals monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD), the major(More)
Production of chemokines (chemotactic cytokines) by neutrophils is likely to be important in the regulation of inflammation and the control of infection. In this study we show that exposure of human neutrophils to various microbial pathogens leads to the production of both macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha (MIP-1alpha) and IL-8. The bacterial microbes,(More)
A chronic inflammatory disease may be characterized by an accumulation of activated leukocytes at the site of inflammation. Since the chemokine RANTES may play an active role in recruiting leukocytes into inflammatory sites, we investigated the ability of cultured human synovial fibroblasts isolated from patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis to(More)
OBJECTIVE Since local secretion of chemotactic factors could contribute substantially to the homing of monocytes to the rheumatoid synovium, we investigated the ability of type B, or "fibroblast-like," synoviocytes isolated from the synovial tissue of patients with rheumatoid arthritis to synthesize and secrete the novel cytokine monocyte chemotactic(More)
We have examined in whole blood the actions of 2 lipoxin A(4) (LXA(4)) stable analogs, 15-R/S-methyl-LXA(4) and 16-phenoxy-LXA(4), for their impact on the expression of adhesion molecules on human leukocytes and coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) and on neutrophil adhesion to HCAEC in vitro. Both LXA(4) analogs in nanomolar to micromolar(More)
Macrophage inflammatory proteins-1 (MIP-1) alpha and beta are members of the C-C branch of the platelet factor 4 superfamily of cytokines, recently designated the "chemokine" superfamily. It has been suggested that the major cellular targets for the biologic activities of the C-C chemokines are the mononuclear leukocytes. However, the original designation(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate both the involvement of chemokines in general and the relative importance of specific chemokines in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), we characterized the effect of the monokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) on the synthesis of neutrophil-activating factors by synovial fibroblasts isolated from(More)
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