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The interaction of the innate immune system with the microbial world involves primarily two sets of molecules generally known as microbial pattern recognition receptors and microbial pattern recognition molecules, respectively. Examples of the former are the Toll receptors present particularly in macrophages and dendritic cells. Conversely, the microbial(More)
The mechanisms that control TNF-alpha production by macrophages during Trypanosoma cruzi infection are still unknown. Destruction of intracellular forms by cytokine activated macrophages is considered to be a major mechanism of parasite elimination. Although in vitro TNF-alpha contributes to enhanced parasite destruction by macrophages, previous work in(More)
We have evaluated the ability of the Leishmania protein LeIF to influence the Th1/Th2 cytokine responses and the generation of LeIF-specific T cell clones in the absence of adjuvant. We characterized LeIF-specific T cell responses in Leishmania major-infected and uninfected BALB/c mice. These mice develop a strong Th2 response during infection with L.(More)
The meta 1 gene of Leishmania is conserved across the genus and encodes a protein upregulated in metacyclic promastigotes. Meta 1 constitutive overexpressing mutants show increased virulence to mice. In this paper, both meta 1 recombinant protein and plasmids bearing the meta 1 gene were tested for their antigenicity and potential for inducing protective(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) production by peritoneal macrophages was evaluated in Calomys callosus and Swiss mice during the course of infection with two strains of Trypanosoma cruzi. In C. callosus, no NO production was detected throughout the period of observation in animals infected with either parasite strain, except for a very low amount measured on day 40 in(More)
This study investigated how Toxoplasma gondii excretory-secretory antigens (ESA) stimulate the humoral and cellular response in infected hosts. We evaluated IFN-γ, IL-4 TNF-α, and IL-10 levels as well as humoral response of ESA-immunized AS/n mice. T. gondii lysate antigen (TLA), a crude antigen, was used in all experiments to evaluate the immune response.(More)
Calomys callosus a wild rodent, is a natural host of Trypanosoma cruzi. Twelve C. callosus were infected with 10(5) trypomastigotes of the F strain (a myotropic strain) of T. cruzi. Parasitemia decreased on the 21st day becoming negative around the 40th day of infection. All animals survived but had positive parasitological tests, until the end of the(More)
Peritoneal macrophage activation as measured by H2O2 release and histopathology was compared between Swiss mice and Calomys callosus, a wild rodent, reservoir of Trypanosoma cruzi, during the course of infection with four strains of this parasite. In mice F and Y strain infections result in high parasitemia and mortality while with silvatic strains(More)