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BACKGROUND Metformin is a logical treatment for women with gestational diabetes mellitus, but randomized trials to assess the efficacy and safety of its use for this condition are lacking. METHODS We randomly assigned 751 women with gestational diabetes mellitus at 20 to 33 weeks of gestation to open treatment with metformin (with supplemental insulin if(More)
BACKGROUND Infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae is a frequent and serious problem for HIV-immunosuppressed adults. Vaccination is recommended in the USA and Europe, but there are no prospective data that show vaccine efficacy. METHODS 1392 (937 female) HIV-1-infected adults in Entebbe, Uganda, were enrolled. 697 received 23-valent pneumococcal(More)
This is the Executive Summary of updated guidelines developed by the Society of Obstetric Medicine of Australia and New Zealand for the management of hypertensive diseases of pregnancy. They address a number of challenging areas including the definition of severe hypertension, the use of automated blood pressure monitors, the definition of non-proteinuric(More)
BACKGROUND Pre-eclampsia is a leading cause of maternal deaths. These deaths mainly result from eclampsia, uncontrolled hypertension, or systemic inflammation. We developed and validated the fullPIERS model with the aim of identifying the risk of fatal or life-threatening complications in women with pre-eclampsia within 48 h of hospital admission for the(More)
BACKGROUND Although lymphocytes expressing the CD4 surface receptor for HIV-1 have been identified as the principal target of the virus, the extent to which infection of other cell types of the immune system contributes to immunodeficiency is unknown. We investigated the cell types in peripheral blood infected with HIV and the relation of viral load in(More)
This study investigated the associations between important dimensions of family relations and the metabolic control of adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Participants were 94 intact families (mother, father, and adolescent) of adolescents with IDDM. Metabolic control was determined by the adolescents' level of HbA(1c), and family(More)
The monoclonal antibody RAP-5 generated against a synthetic peptide corresponding to amino acid positions 10-17 of the ras p21 protein was used in an immunohistochemical study of the expression of ras in normal, benign, and malignant breast epithelium in man. The staining intensity and intracellular distribution of RAP-5 was similar in the three epithelial(More)
iii " The millions of lives already lost have changed the face of villages, towns, cities and nations. It is possible to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV now. Proven interventions exist and should be implemented as soon as possible. The obstacles to implementation of this knowledge are numerous... but can be overcome with resources,(More)
OBJECTIVE Pregnant women with undiagnosed diabetes are a high-risk group that may benefit from early intervention. Extrapolating from nonpregnancy data, HbA1c ≥6.5% (48 mmol/mol) is recommended to define diabetes in pregnancy. Our aims were to determine the optimal HbA1c threshold for detecting diabetes in early pregnancy as defined by an early oral glucose(More)