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Progressive loss of T cell functionality is a hallmark of chronic infection with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1). We have identified a novel population of dysfunctional T cells marked by surface expression of the glycoprotein Tim-3. The frequency of this population was increased in HIV-1-infected individuals to a mean of 49.4 +/- SD 12.9% of CD8(+) T(More)
BACKGROUND We evaluated the efficacy of raltegravir and the development of viral resistance in two identical trials involving patients who were infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) with triple-class drug resistance and in whom antiretroviral therapy had failed. METHODS We conducted subgroup analyses of the data from week 48 in both(More)
BACKGROUND Raltegravir (MK-0518) is an inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase active against HIV-1 susceptible or resistant to older antiretroviral drugs. METHODS We conducted two identical trials in different geographic regions to evaluate the safety and efficacy of raltegravir, as compared with placebo, in combination with(More)
Changes in T-cell function are a hallmark of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, but the pathogenic mechanisms leading to these changes are unclear. We examined the gene expression profiles in ex vivo human CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from untreated HIV-1-infected individuals at different clinical stages and rates of disease progression.(More)
Strongyloidiasis is a chronic infection that may result in significant morbidity; however, diagnosis and management remain problematic. The objective of this study was to 1) evaluate the demographic, clinical, and laboratory features of 76 consecutive individuals who had Strongyloides stercoralis larvae identified in their fecal specimens; 2) determine the(More)
Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is a cytokine with epithelial reparative and regenerative properties that is produced by Th22 cells and by other immune cell subsets. Therefore, we explored the hypothesis that disruption of the gut barrier during HIV infection involves dysregulation of these cells in the gastrointestinal mucosa. Sigmoid IL-22-producing T cell and(More)
Effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) may reduce HIV sexual transmission by lowering genital HIV levels. A prospective study of men starting ART (n = 25) demonstrated rapid, substantial reductions in semen HIV RNA. However, despite an undetectable blood viral load, isolated semen HIV shedding was detected at more than one visit in 12 of 25 (48%)(More)
BENCHMRK-1 and -2 are ongoing double-blind phase III studies of raltegravir in patients experiencing failure of antiretroviral therapy with triple-class drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus infection. At week 96 (combined data), raltegravir (400 mg twice daily) plus optimized background therapy was generally well tolerated, with superior and durable(More)
BACKGROUND Improvements in life expectancy and quality of life for HIV-positive women coupled with reduced vertical transmission will likely lead numerous HIV-positive women to consider becoming pregnant. In order to clarify the demand, and aid with appropriate health services planning for this population, our study aims to assess the fertility desires and(More)
OBJECTIVE Th17 cells play an important role in mucosal defence and repair and are highly susceptible to infection by HIV. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) suppresses HIV viremia and can restore CD4(+) numbers in the blood and gastrointestinal mucosa, but the resolution of systemic inflammation and gut microbial translocation is often incomplete. We hypothesized(More)