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The nucleus incertus (NI) is a distinct cell group in caudoventral regions of the pontine periventricular gray, adjacent to the ventromedial border of the caudal dorsal tegmental nucleus. Recent interest in the NI stems from evidence that it represents one of the periventricular sites with the highest expression levels of mRNA encoding the type 1(More)
Eugenol, which is contained in several plants including clove, has been widely used as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug in the dental clinic. Eugenol also has anesthetic effects and produces sedation and the reduction of convulsion threshold. These benefits have been partly attributed to the effects of eugenol on neural tissues, such as inhibition of(More)
The connections of the precomissural nucleus (PRC) have been examined with anterograde and retrograde axonal tracing methods in the rat. Experiments with cholera toxin B subunit (CTb) indicate that the PRC shares a number of common afferent sources with the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray (PAG). Thus, we have shown that the nucleus receives substantial(More)
The study of the neural basis of predatory behavior has been largely neglected over the recent years. Using an ethologically based approach, we presently delineate the prosencephalic systems mobilized during predation by examining Fos immunoreactivity in rats performing insect hunting. These results were further compared with those obtained from animals(More)
In the present study we examined, in rats exposed to a predator (cat), the distribution of neurons expressing Fos along the continuum formed by the central gray surrounding the caudal pole of the third ventricle and the periaqueductal gray (PAG). After the predatory encounter, a distinct cluster of Fos-immunoreactive cells was observed in the precommissural(More)
Overactive bladder (OAB), according to the International Continence Society (ICS) definition, is a symptom syndrome, with urgency as the cornerstone symptom. However, the word 'urgency' and its definition continue to be the subject of much debate and confusion. It is generally difficult for patients to differentiate urgency from normal urge, particularly(More)
In this study, we immunized Gb3/CD77 synthase gene (A4galt) knockout (KO) mice with glycosphingolipids (GSLs) extracted from 3 renal cell cancer (RCC) cell lines to raise monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) reactive with globo-series GSLs specifically expressed in RCCs. Although a number of mAbs reactive with globo-series GSLs were generated, they reacted with(More)
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