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A sensitive and specific real-time RT-PCR assay to detect rotavirus in stool samples was optimized and validated using a wide range of rotavirus genotypes. The target of the original TaqMan(R) assay is an 87 bp fragment of the highly conserved non-structural protein 3 (NSP3) gene. Here we modified the original assay by introducing degeneracy into the(More)
Rotavirus serotype G12 was initially identified in the Philippines in 1987 and was not described again until it reemerged more than 13 years later. G12 strains were first detected in the United States in 2002 and have recently assumed a worldwide distribution. The high similarity between the sequence of the major outer capsid VP7 gene of human G12 strains(More)
Listeriosis is caused by Listeria monocytogenes, a gram-positive bacillus common in the environment and acquired by humans primarily through consumption of contaminated food. Infection causes a spectrum of illness, ranging from febrile gastroenteritis to invasive disease, including sepsis and meningoencephalitis. Invasive listeriosis occurs predominantly in(More)
BACKGROUND A live, attenuated rotavirus vaccine, RotaTeq®, was approved in 2006 for immunization of infants in the United States. To monitor the distribution of rotavirus genotypes before and after vaccine introduction, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducted strain surveillance with the National Rotavirus Strain Surveillance System. (More)
BACKGROUND Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi is transmitted by fecally contaminated food and water and causes approximately 22 million typhoid fever infections worldwide each year. Most cases occur in developing countries, where approximately 4% of patients develop intestinal perforation (IP). In Kasese District, Uganda, a typhoid fever outbreak notable for(More)
In October 2010, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention received reports of cases of severe watery diarrhea in Haiti. The cause was confirmed to be toxigenic Vibrio cholerae, serogroup O1, serotype Ogawa, biotype El Tor. We characterized 122 isolates from Haiti and compared them with isolates from other countries. Antimicrobial drug(More)
Global rotavirus surveillance has led to the detection of many unusual human rotavirus (HRV) genotypes. The aim of this study was to elucidate the genetic and evolutionary relationships of short fragments of all 11 gene segments of G10 HRV strains identified in West Africa through the African Rotavirus Network (ARN) system. During 1998-2004 surveillance(More)
UNLABELLED Prior to the epidemic that emerged in Haiti in October of 2010, cholera had not been documented in this country. After its introduction, a strain of Vibrio cholerae O1 spread rapidly throughout Haiti, where it caused over 600,000 cases of disease and >7,500 deaths in the first two years of the epidemic. We applied whole-genome sequencing to a(More)
Evidence that gamma/delta T cells play a broad, immunoregulatory role has been accumulating steadily. We show here that myeloid cells are disregulated after peritoneal infection with Listeria monocytogenes in mice lacking gamma/delta T cells. Inflammatory populations of neutrophils and monocytes recruited to the site of infection remained longer.(More)