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CONTEXT The prevalence of high body mass index (BMI) among children and adolescents in the United States appeared to plateau between 1999 and 2006. OBJECTIVES To provide the most recent estimates of high BMI among children and adolescents and high weight for recumbent length among infants and toddlers and to analyze trends in prevalence between 1999 and(More)
Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2008. Among men, obesity prevalence is generally similar at all income levels, however, among non-Hispanic black and Mexican-American men those with higher income are more likely to be obese than those with low income. Higher income women are less likely to be obese than low income women,(More)
Among non-Hispanic white children and adolescents, the prevalence of obesity increases as income decreases, yet the majority of non-Hispanic white children and adolescents who are obese do not live below 130% of the poverty level. In fact, overall, the majority of obese children do not live below 130% of the poverty level. All boys and girls and(More)
CONTEXT Cod liver oil supplements in infancy have been associated with a decreased risk of type 1 diabetes mellitus in a retrospective study. OBJECTIVE To examine whether intakes of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are associated with the development of islet autoimmunity (IA) in children. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A longitudinal, observational(More)
Larger childhood body size and rapid growth have been associated with increased type 1 diabetes risk. We analysed height, weight, BMI and velocities of growth in height, weight and BMI, for association with development of islet autoimmunity (IA) and type 1 diabetes. Since 1993, the Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY) has followed children at(More)
Dietary sugar intake may increase insulin production, stress the beta cells and increase the risk for islet autoimmunity (IA) and subsequent type 1 diabetes. Since 1993, the Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY) has followed children at increased genetic risk for type 1 diabetes for the development of IA (autoantibodies to insulin, GAD or protein(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Childhood obesity tracks into adulthood, and may increase diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk in adulthood. Prospective analyses may better define the pathways between early life factors and greater childhood body mass index (BMI), a measure of obesity. METHODS The Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY) prospectively follows(More)
BACKGROUND Food insecurity can put children at greater risk of obesity because of altered food choices and nonuniform consumption patterns. OBJECTIVE We examined the association between obesity and both child-level food insecurity and personal food insecurity in US children. DESIGN Data from 9,701 participants in the National Health and Nutrition(More)
BACKGROUND Infant dietary exposures have been linked to type 1 diabetes (T1D) development. IgG4 antibody responses to food antigens are associated with food intolerances but have not been explored prospectively in the period preceding T1D. METHODS Using a case-cohort design, IgG4 antibodies to ß-lactoglobulin, gluten, and ovalbumin were measured in plasma(More)
IMPORTANCE The incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is increasing worldwide, with the most rapid increase among children younger than 5 years of age. OBJECTIVE To examine the associations between perinatal and infant exposures, especially early infant diet, and the development of T1DM. DESIGN The Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY)(More)