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We used DNA microarrays of the Escherichia coli genome to trace the progression of chromosomal replication forks in synchronized cells. We found that both DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV (topo IV) promote replication fork progression. When both enzymes were inhibited, the replication fork stopped rapidly. The elongation rate with topo IV alone was 1/3 of(More)
Mutants in bacterial topoisomerase (topo) IV are deficient in chromosomal partitioning. To investigate the basis of this phenotype, we examined plasmid DNA topology in conditionally lethal topo IV mutants. We found that dimeric catenated plasmids accumulated in vivo after topo IV inhibition. The catenanes were supercoiled, contained from 2 to > 32 nodes,(More)
Gene products required for in vivo growth and survival of microbial pathogens comprise a unique functional class and may represent new targets for antimicrobial chemotherapy, vaccine construction, or diagnostics. Although some factors governing Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity have been identified and studied, a comprehensive genomic analysis of(More)
The pharmaceutical industry has embraced genomics as a means to identify new biological targets for target-based drug discovery approaches. Now, genomics is driving a substantial effort in protein structure determination and structure prediction. These structures will provide the opportunity to undertake structure-guided drug discovery programs in the(More)
A number of genetic methods for the isolation, characterization and manipulation of large chromosomal inversions in Salmonella typhimurium are described. One inversion-carrying mutant is characterized in detail and used to demonstrate a number of unique genetic properties of bacterial inversions. --Contrary to expectation, it was found that large inversion(More)
The yycF1(Ts) mutation in Staphylococcus aureus conferred hypersensitivity to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLS(B)) antibiotics on strains either containing or lacking ermB. The overexpression of the S. aureus Ssa protein restored the yycF1 mutant to wild-type levels of susceptibility. Inactivation of ssa in an unmutagenized strain dramatically(More)
A healthy cell must maintain chromosome integrity during each phase of the cell cycle. Yet during the cell cycle, defects in DNA repair, DNA synthesis, and chromosome transmission can cause chromosome instability. Here, we build a cyclical model for chromosome maintenance by assaying the genetic interactions of pairs of genes that each normally functions to(More)
Chromosome stability models are usually qualitative models derived from molecular-genetic mechanisms for DNA repair, DNA synthesis, and cell division. While qualitative models are informative, they are also challenging to reformulate as precise quantitative models. In this report we explore how (A) laboratory experiments, (B) quantitative simulation, and(More)
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