Mojtaba Karimzad

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Cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in Kabul have increased steadily in number since the first report, in 1964. This increase is despite insecticide application in houses and intensive detection and treatment of cases. The age distribution of infection remains as it was in 1972, and approximates that of the Afghan population. There is no evidence of accumulating(More)
Laboratory tests of insect repellents by various different methods showed that An.stephensi Liston was consistently more susceptible than An.gambiae Giles, An.albimanus Wiedemann or An.pulcherrimus Theobald. The six repellents tested were di-ethyl toluamide (deet), di-methyl phthalate (DMP), ethyl-hexanediol, permethrin, citronella and cedarwood oil.(More)
Alum is the most commonly used adjuvant for human vaccination but is a poor inducer of cell mediated immunity and T helper 1 (Th1) responses. We have previously shown that naloxone (NLX), which is a general opioid antagonist, acts as an effective adjuvant in enhancing vaccine-induced cellular immunity and Th1 immune responses. Here, we tested the efficacy(More)
We have previously demonstrated the adjuvant activity of naloxone (NLX), a general opioid antagonist, using a DNA vaccine for herpes simplex virus type 1. Here, the adjuvant activity of NLX has been evaluated using a heat-killed Listeria monocytogenes (HKLM) vaccine as a model for general immunization against intracellular bacteria. BALB/c mice were divided(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Glycoprotein 96 is the primary chaperone of the endoplasmic reticulum. Immunization with it induced potent Cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses to intracellular bacteria. S. typhimurium is a facultative intracellular bacterium and acquired resistance against this bacterium mainly depends on activity of Cytotoxic T cells. This study(More)
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