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Parkinson's disease, caused by the loss of dopaminergic nigrostriatal projections, is a debilitating neurodegenerative disease characterized by bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor and postural instability. The dopamine precursor levodopa (L-dopa) is the most effective treatment for the amelioration of Parkinson's disease signs and symptoms, but long-term(More)
The authors describe long-term follow-up (mean, 5 years) in patients with anterior (AN) (n = 6) or centromedian (n = 2) thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) for epilepsy. Five patients (all AN) had > or = 50% seizure reduction, although benefit was delayed in two until years 5 to 6, after changes in antiepileptic drugs. DBS electrode implantation in AN(More)
Recent studies suggest that beta (15-30 Hz) oscillatory activity in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is dramatically increased in Parkinson's disease (PD) and may interfere with movement execution. Dopaminergic medications decrease beta activity and deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the STN may alleviate PD symptoms by disrupting this oscillatory activity. Depth(More)
PURPOSE Electrical stimulation of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus appears to be effective against seizures in animals and humans. As the optimal stimulation settings remain elusive, we studied the effects of different stimulation parameters against pilocarpine induced seizures and status epilepticus (SE). METHODS Adult rats had electrodes implanted(More)
We studied the time course and nature of interactions between the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the motor cortex in 8 Parkinson disease (PD) patients with chronically implanted STN deep-brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes. We first identified the cortical evoked potentials following STN stimulation. The most consistent potential was positive wave with peak(More)
Rest tremor is one of the main symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), although in contrast to rigidity and akinesia, the severity of the tremor does not correlate well with the degree of dopamine deficiency or the progression of the disease. Studies suggest that akinesia in PD patients is related to abnormal increased beta (15-30 Hz) and decreased gamma(More)
PURPOSE A significant number of patients with epilepsy remain poorly controlled despite antiepileptic medication (AED) treatment and are not eligible for resective surgery. Novel therapeutic methods are required to decrease seizure burden in this population. Several observations have indicated that the anterior thalamic region plays an important role in the(More)
Corpus callosotomy is an effective neurosurgical procedure for children with intractable atonic or drop attack seizures. While this procedure has not changed significantly over the past three decades, some technical issues remain to be resolved. These include the intraoperative determination of the extent of the callosotomy, the need to stage the procedure,(More)
The local injection of botulinum toxin is accepted as the first-line treatment of primary cervical dystonia. This approach provides adequate symptomatic relief for most patients, but up to one-third will have an unsatisfactory response. Deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus internus has been increasingly used in dystonic syndromes that are(More)
PURPOSE Increasing the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) field strength can improve image resolution and quality, but concerns remain regarding the influence on geometric fidelity. The objectives of the present study were to spatially investigate the effect of 3-Tesla (3T) MRI on clinical target localization for stereotactic radiosurgery. METHODS AND(More)