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Parkinson's disease, caused by the loss of dopaminergic nigrostriatal projections, is a debilitating neurodegenerative disease characterized by bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor and postural instability. The dopamine precursor levodopa (L-dopa) is the most effective treatment for the amelioration of Parkinson's disease signs and symptoms, but long-term(More)
The authors describe long-term follow-up (mean, 5 years) in patients with anterior (AN) (n = 6) or centromedian (n = 2) thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) for epilepsy. Five patients (all AN) had > or = 50% seizure reduction, although benefit was delayed in two until years 5 to 6, after changes in antiepileptic drugs. DBS electrode implantation in AN(More)
Recent studies suggest that beta (15-30 Hz) oscillatory activity in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is dramatically increased in Parkinson's disease (PD) and may interfere with movement execution. Dopaminergic medications decrease beta activity and deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the STN may alleviate PD symptoms by disrupting this oscillatory activity. Depth(More)
PURPOSE Electrical stimulation of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus appears to be effective against seizures in animals and humans. As the optimal stimulation settings remain elusive, we studied the effects of different stimulation parameters against pilocarpine induced seizures and status epilepticus (SE). METHODS Adult rats had electrodes implanted(More)
OBJECTIVE Deep brain stimulation in the globus pallidus internus (GPi) is used to alleviate the motor symptoms of both Parkinson's disease (PD) and dystonia. We tested the hypothesis that PD and dystonia are characterized by different temporal patterns of synchronized oscillations in the GPi, and that the dopaminergic loss in PD makes the basal ganglia more(More)
We studied the time course and nature of interactions between the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the motor cortex in 8 Parkinson disease (PD) patients with chronically implanted STN deep-brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes. We first identified the cortical evoked potentials following STN stimulation. The most consistent potential was positive wave with peak(More)
OBJECTIVE Idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is characterized by paroxysms of severe facial pain but without the major sensory loss that commonly accompanies neuropathic pain. Since neurovascular compression of the trigeminal nerve root entry zone does not fully explain the pathogenesis of TN, we determined whether there were brain gray matter(More)
PURPOSE A significant number of patients with epilepsy remain poorly controlled despite antiepileptic medication (AED) treatment and are not eligible for resective surgery. Novel therapeutic methods are required to decrease seizure burden in this population. Several observations have indicated that the anterior thalamic region plays an important role in the(More)
Rest tremor is one of the main symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), although in contrast to rigidity and akinesia, the severity of the tremor does not correlate well with the degree of dopamine deficiency or the progression of the disease. Studies suggest that akinesia in PD patients is related to abnormal increased beta (15-30 Hz) and decreased gamma(More)
OBJECTIVE Transmission of knowledge to neurosurgical trainees in any environment is challenging, more so, in the developing world. Online education has the potential to maximize the cooperation within the international neurosurgical community. Our objective is to describe a model of online education that is sustainable and effective in the developed and(More)