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Although cell culture studies have implicated the presence of vesicle proteins in mediating the release of glutamate from astrocytes, definitive proof requires the identification of the glutamate release mechanism and the localization of this mechanism in astrocytes at synaptic locales. In cultured murine astrocytes we show an array of vesicle proteins,(More)
Astrocytes, a subtype of glial cells, have numerous characteristics that were previously considered exclusive for neurons. One of these characteristics is a cytosolic [Ca2+] oscillation that controls the release of the chemical transmitter glutamate and atrial natriuretic peptide. These chemical messengers appear to be released from astrocytes via(More)
Astrocytes are non-neuronal cells in the CNS, which, like neurons, are capable of releasing neuroactive molecules. However, the mechanism of release is ill defined. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of release of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) from cultured cortical astrocytes by confocal microscopy. To study the discharge of this hormone, we(More)
Astrocytes have a key role in the clearance and inactivation of histamine in the adult central nervous system, but transporters which mediate histamine uptake into astrocytes have not been fully characterized. We therefore investigated the kinetic and molecular characteristics of histamine uptake into cultured adult rat astrocytes. [(3)H]-histamine was(More)
Recent identification of intracellular proteins that bind ammodytoxin (calmodulin, 14-3-3 proteins, and R25) suggests that this snake venom presynaptically active phospholipase A(2) acts intracellularly. As these ammodytoxin acceptors are cytosolic and mitochondrial proteins, the toxin should be able to enter the cytosol of a target cell and remain stable(More)
Astrocytes support the brain through numerous functional interactions in health and disease. The recent advances in our knowledge of astrocyte involvement in various neurological disorders raised up several questions about their role and functioning in the central nervous system. From the evidence discussed in this review, we show that histamine importantly(More)
Background The neurotransmitter histamine is synthesized from his-tidine in histaminergic neurons. Later on it is taken up into synaptic vesicles by the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 and released into the synaptic cleft upon depo-larization stimuli. The released neurotransmitter is metabolised by the enzyme histamine N-methyltransfer-ase (HNMT)(More)
Background Increased plasma histamine levels lead to pathological events. Endothelial cells actively participate in histamine clearance by promoting its uptake via yet unidentified carriers, thus limiting histamine effects. The organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3) and plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT) are the two most prominent transporters for(More)
has followed the strict standards of quality in the scientific publishing. However, the Journal has been aware that its specific position demands more than just following the already established rules. From the very beginning, the Journal declared an " author-helpful policy, " stating that " journal editors should have a major role in training authors in(More)
In this article we report a combined experimental and computational study concerning the effects of deuteration on the binding of histamine and two other histaminergic agonists to 3H-tiotidine-labeled histamine H2 receptor in neonatal rat astrocytes. Binding affinities were measured by displacing radiolabeled tiotidine from H2 receptor binding sites present(More)