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CONTEXT The relevance of the BRAF V600E mutation in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) as a negative prognostic factor is a subject of intense debate. This mutation has been associated with several clinicopathological features, but the lack of consistency among data does not support its usefulness as marker of tumor aggressiveness and poorer outcome. Due to(More)
CONTEXT The homogeneous distribution of BRAF V600E in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has been called into question by recent reports. These studies claim that BRAF V600E is heterogeneous and is limited to tumor cell subsets in the majority of PTCs. OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to understand the allele distribution of BRAF V600E by(More)
BACKGROUND Small papillary thyroid carcinomas have contributed to the worldwide increased incidence of differentiated thyroid cancer observed over the past decades. However, the mortality rate has not changed over the same period of time, raising questions about the possibility that thyroid cancer patients, especially those with small tumors, are(More)
BACKGROUND Fluorescence confocal microscopy (FCM) is an emerging technology for rapid imaging of excised tissue, without the need for frozen- or fixed-section processing. Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) can be detected in Mohs excisions although few studies have described the major BCC findings as seen on FCM. OBJECTIVES To describe the major BCC findings of(More)
OBJECTIVE Transcriptional activating mutations in the promoter of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene were reported at high frequency in aggressive poorly differentiated and anaplastic thyroid cancers. By contrast, the relevance of these mutations in the metastatic behavior of well-differentiated thyroid cancer is still to be defined. The aim(More)
Mohs micrographic surgery can be employed in recurrent basal cell carcinoma, although it is a time-consuming technique. Recently, ex vivo fluorescence confocal microscopy (FCM) has been employed to obtain a fast assessment of tumor margins at the bedside. In our case we successfully employed ex vivo FCM to assess the tumor margins and we treated the(More)
The transdifferentiation of epithelial cells toward a mesenchymal condition (EMT) is a complex process that allows tumor cells to migrate to ectopic sites. Cadherins are not just structural proteins, but they act as sensors of the surrounding microenvironment and as signaling centers for cellular pathways. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these(More)
Merkel cell carcinoma is a neuroendocrine tumor, with characteristic morphological and immunohistochemical features. Originally reported as primary carcinoma of skin, it has been described in numerous other sites such as lymph nodes, oral cavity, breast, vaginal walls, and salivary glands. Recent studies have revealed in cutaneous Merkel cell carcinomas a(More)
Confocal microscopy is a non-invasive method of optical imaging that may provide microscopic images of untreated tissue that correspond almost perfectly to hematoxylin- and eosin-stained slides. Nowadays, following two confocal imaging systems are available: (1) reflectance confocal microscopy, based on the natural differences in refractive indices of(More)