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BACKGROUND Mobile (cell) phone communication has been suggested as a method to improve delivery of health services. However, data on the effects of mobile health technology on patient outcomes in resource-limited settings are limited. We aimed to assess whether mobile phone communication between health-care workers and patients starting antiretroviral(More)
BACKGROUND Asthma-related health resource use and costs may be influenced by increasing asthma prevalence, changes to asthma management guidelines, and new medications over the last decade. The objective of this work was to analyze direct asthma-related medical costs, and trends in total and per-patient costs of hospitalizations, physician visits, and(More)
BACKGROUND Treatment outcomes for multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MDRTB) are generally poor compared to drug sensitive disease. We sought to estimate treatment outcomes and identify risk factors associated with poor outcomes in patients with MDRTB. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We performed a systematic search (to December 2008) to(More)
BACKGROUND Once considered as the main public health problem in developed countries, obesity has become a major problem throughout the world and developing countries, like Iran, are joining the global obesity pandemic. We determined the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and hypertension in a large cohort of Iranians and compared age-adjusted rates with the(More)
BACKGROUND Recent approval of interferon-gamma release assays that are more specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis has given new options for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). OBJECTIVE To assess the cost-effectiveness of Quanti-FERON-TB Gold (QFT-G) vs. the tuberculin skin test (TST) in diagnosing LTBI in contacts of active TB cases(More)
BACKGROUND The expected value of partial perfect information (EVPPI) is a theoretically justifiable and informative measure of uncertainty in decision-analytic cost-effectiveness models, but its calculation is computationally intensive because it generally requires two-level Monte Carlo simulation. We introduce an efficient, one-level simulation method for(More)
BACKGROUND Little is known about the combination of different medications in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study determined the cost effectiveness of adding salmeterol (S) or fluticasone/salmeterol (FS) to tiotropium (T) for COPD. METHODS This concurrent, prospective, economic analysis was based on costs and health outcomes from a 52(More)
Diagnostic discordance for osteoporosis is the observation that the T-score of a patient varies between skeletal sites, falling into 2 different diagnostic categories identified by the World Health Organization classification system. Densitometrists and clinicians should expect that at least 4 of every 10 patients tested by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry(More)
The aim of the present study was to perform cost-minimisation analysis of contact investigation from a public health perspective using the tuberculin skin test (TST) and a new blood assay, QuantiFERON-TB Gold (QFT-G). A decision-analysis model simulated the costs of investigating a cohort of adult close tuberculosis contacts by the public health service(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a growing economic burden worldwide. Smoking cessation is thought to be the single most effective way of reducing the economic burden of COPD. The impact of other strategies such as interventions that predict risk of disease, reduce progression of disease, or reduce exacerbations has not been(More)