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he current centrally controlled electrical grid is a large interconnected network that delivers electricity from suppliers to consumers. New challenges are emerging in the traditional power grid, such as rising energy demand, aging infrastructure, renewable energy sources, reliability , and security [1–4]. These challenges have become a global concern that(More)
Due to the collaborative nature of sensor nodes, time synchronization is critical for many sensor network operations. For sensor networks deployed in hostile environments, security is critical to the success of time synchronization. In the past few years, a number of secure time synchronization schemes have been proposed for sensor networks. However, these(More)
Security is critical for sensor networks used in military, homeland security and other hostile environments. Previous research on sensor network security mainly considers homogeneous sensor networks. Research has shown that homogeneous ad hoc networks have poor performance and scalability. Furthermore, many security schemes designed for homogeneous sensor(More)
5G networks are expected to achieve Gigabit level throughput in future cellular networks. However, it is a great challenge to treat the 5G wireless backhaul traffic in an effective way. In this paper, we analyze the wireless backhaul traffic in two typical network architectures adopting small cell and millimeter wave communication technologies. Furthermore,(More)
—Currently, in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), the main idea in most localization algorithms has been that a mobile anchor node, e.g., GPS-equipped (Global Positioning System) nodes, broadcasts its coordinates to locate unknown nodes. In this case, a basic problem is the path planning of the mobile anchor node which should move along the trajectory to(More)